The overrepresentation of sexual content on television and the debate raised by new femininities have transformed research on sexuality and TV fiction into a fruitful pdf of study.
Content analyses demonstrate that television fiction offers a distorted image of sexuality and that information on relevant sex issues is barely considered. This article analyzes the sexual representations of female characters in Spanish TV fiction using a hybrid method that combines SPSS Statistics tools and socio-semiotics. The femenina consists of female characters from all the shows premiered in and The sexual activity of the female characters is related femenina physical attractiveness and age, with the exception of children and adolescents.
Young female characters in the sample identify empowerment with sexual assertiveness and control, while sexual depictions of women over 45 are almost non-existent. The XX century media further solidified the false association between mass culture and women pre-dating modern era Huyssen, 94sparkling in scholars a certain disregard toward television.
Stemming from the overrepresentation of sex on television Al-Sayed and Gunter, ; Kunkel et al. Content analyses of sex representations reinforce the idea that television fiction offers a distorted image of sexuality Al-Sayed and Gunter, ; Fisher et al.
On the other hand, some of the research works carried out by Signorielli and Bacueand Signorielli and Kalhenberg stress the didactic potential of television fiction in relation to sex femenina stereotypes, despite cultivation theory scholars tend to perceive television sexualidad a conservative medium. In general, it is considered that information on such relevant issues as abstinence, social responsibility and sexual protection constitutes a reduced part of the representations of sexuality Berridge, ; Kelly, ; Kunkel et al.
The construction of gender in Spanish television also constitutes a growing body of research. However, as in other European countries, content analysis on domestic fiction focuses mainly on young people Guarinos, ; Ramajo et al. In this sense, the research work presented here constitutes a novel contribution to the study of representations of female sexuality in Spanish television fiction, both in terms of its wide sample female characters and innovative method. The analysis combines the coding in SPSS of 40 variables with the description of sexuality-related storylines that include female characters.
Unlike other fields of research, the sexualization of culture is a complicated and often polarized field Gill,in which claims on the educational potential of representations Collins et al. Representations of sexuality can play a decisive role in both the processes of socialization and learning Collins et al. Therefore, representations of sexuality are important in the perceptions of sexuality and sexual behaviors among viewers Eyal and Finnerty,especially young ones Eyal and Finnerty, ; Masanet et al.
Critical feminism, on the contrary, complains about the overrepresentation of female sexuality in the media Gill, and is concerned by the progressive consolidation of certain neoliberal sexual prototypes Gallager, ; Gill,which turn femininity into a hyper-sexualized woman systematically associated with consumerism McRobbie, ; Gill pdf Scharff, Gallager 26 claims that the feminist discourse in the media tends to be conservative and is largely structured upon notions of individual choice, personal empowerment and freedom.
As a result:. She also highlights the persistence of two contradictory female stereotypes used to characterize the same woman: the woman who wants to be like men in order to sexualidad them, and the hyper-sexualized woman who wants to appeal to men. This aligns with her determination to go beyond social criticism and identify representations that are able to transform reality Braidotti, Disguising the structural inequalities reflected in the prototypes of postfeminist TV portrayals Ally McBealSex and the City, Desperate housewives, etc.
The study presented here combines codification in SPSS Pdf with socio-semiotics approach to analyze the representations of female sexuality in Spanish TV fiction. The sexualidad of SPSS Statistics to femenina the quantitative database is due to its flexibility to recode different variables sexualidad data inputs, which allows social-sciences researchers to adapt it to their needs.
Socio-semiotics is a branch of structuralism semiotics, which deals with the social dimension of discourses Landowski ; Semprini, ; but, unlike textual analysis, socio-semiotics integrates the context of the object of study into femenina analysis. The sample selection of the 84 programs series, soap operas, miniseries, TV movies and sketches excluded those occasional secondary characters that appear in three or fewer episodes.
The first phase of the research included watching a sample of 3, episodes: 1, broadcast throughout and 1, throughout The independent variables on sexuality are as follows: activity, attitude, role in love triangles, virginity, unwanted consequences of sexual relations pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases [STDs], sexual problems and sexual violence.
The age of the characters was grouped into eight clusters in order to reduce the dispersion inherent to the coding of this variable: ; ; ; ; ; ; and over The encoding involved thirteen researchers, competent in the use of SPSS. Of these researchers, four had PhD degrees and the rest were PhD students. Before the coding, a pilot test analysis was carried out to test the inter-coder agreement and to detect possible errors in the data inputting stage.
Once the inter-coder reproducibility and the quantitative database were verified, we carried out the univariate analysis, through nominal variables and frequency tables; and the bivariate analysis, which allowed us to cross examine the seven independent sexual variables and age with the rest of the dependent variables, in order to create contingency tables and proceed to the main data analysis.
The data matrix consists of units of analysis casesone for each character included in the sample. The crossing of the seven sexuality-related variables with the 32 dependent variables produced contingency tables, plus 31 tables that resulted sexualidad the crossing of the age variable with the rest of the dependent variables, which generated a total of contingency tables.
The quantitative database was complemented with a qualitative database, built in parallel to the coding process in SPSS. This database is comprised in the sexualidad sexuality-related storyline of each of the female characters However, since a storyline can include different sexual variables, complex storylines were separated in storylines dealing with a single sexual variable.
A total of storylines regarding sexuality were identified. Contingency tables femenina us to structure the data obtained and to examine the most relevant results of variable crossing in relation to the corresponding storylines. This last stage of the study involved the participation of seven of the researchers who developed the quantitative and qualitative databases SPSS and storylines, respectively. The storylines of Sexualidad sexual activity of the female characters is directly proportional to their physical attractiveness and inversely proportional to age, with the exception of the groups of little girls 4 to 9 year-olds and adolescent girls 10 to 14 year-oldswhose sexual dimension is hardly represented.
Thus, The most sexually active age group is toyears, pdf constitutes the largest age group in the sample The second most sexually active age group is to The sophistication, associated with characters with a high purchasing power, also acts as a trigger for sexual activity, since On the contrary, sexual activity is quite low in the age group Spanish television fiction promotes female monogamy, with The end of a relationship is often linked to the start of a new one and most of the women change their partners very often.
As in the case of sexual activity, the age of the characters also determines infidelity, which reaches its zenith among the to year-old female characters The pdf that the number of cases of infidelity suffered by women is larger among monogamous women Moreover, storylines related to male infidelity are more developed and better articulated than those related to female infidelity.
The stories sexualidad in the sample focus on the exploration of the first sexual experiences of the to year-old female characters Of the nine women who lose their virginity in an explicit manner, According to the different levels of sexual activity of the sample of female characters, the group of to year-old women faces more problems of this kind femenina the rest of the age groups The problems related to the sexual sphere revolve mainly around unwanted pregnancies 5.
Of the unwanted pregnancies detected in the sample, 42 5. Only 0. However, the problems caused by unplanned pregnancy are eventually solved sexualidad of the times. When unplanned pregnancy is the result of rape or sexual abuse, the perpetrator is often previously acquainted by the victim, which is in line with a good portion of the actual sexual attacks that occur in Spain, where Only three of the female characters whose storyline is related to the sexual sphere exercise some kind of sexual violence, and this occurs in some of the many period TV series.
These women are characterized negatively: Two of them sexually abuse younger men through different forms of coercion, while the third threatens a bullfighter with revealing his homosexuality if he does not support her political plans.
The young female characters in the sample identify empowerment with sexual assertiveness, as well as with the acquisition of individual power and control Gallager, The few women over 46 years of age related with sexuality either imitate the sexy style of young women with provocative clothing, or display sophistication that denotes the high social stratus which they usually belong to.
The sexual activity of the less attractive female characters is also very limited and tends to revolve around the search for a sexual partner, one of the most reviled topics of femenina cultural forms Gill, Sexual intercourses are more common between unmarried couples Al-Sayed and Gunter, and their representation tends to be very stereotypical Eyal and Finnerty, The setting femenina the past of a sizeable part of the analyzed storylines does not substantially affect the sexual construction of women, even though period dramas are pdf likely to include subjects of social interest, for example the consequences of sexual violence and of not using methods to prevent pregnancies and the transmission of STDs.
Infidelity is one of the most recurrent scripts in the representation of sexual intercourse in the analyzed storylines, which is a similar result to that reached by Al-Sayed and Gunter in their research on British soap operas. Female infidelity appears to be linked with age, as most of these women are under 45 years of age, and it tends to be casual. Male infidelity frequently originates with complex triangulations, which turn the two women involved in the love triangle into rivals, confronted by a man.
Sexual promiscuity tends to be presented as an attribute of the character engaged in it, however occasional female infidelity is frequently justified by resorting to exogenous circumstances and is followed by repentance. Thus, even though most of the sexually active female characters are shown as sexually available, infidelity is still justified by the effects of alcohol or loneliness Berridge, In married female characters, infidelity is presented as a reaction to male infidelity.
Less than a quarter of the young women that star in stories related to sexual initiation lose their virginity in an explicit manner.
The analyzed stories tend to ignore the negative consequences of unprotected sex Aubrey, ; Eyal and Finnerty, ; Van Damme, These are relatively frequent topics in the stories set in the past, which occasionally add the age difference factor, at a time when a relationship between a woman and a younger man was frowned upon.
With the exception of only one female character who contracts an STD in a period drama, the only negative consequences of unprotected sex are unwanted pregnancies, a third of which occurs in the to age group. The unwanted pregnancy of one of the three teenagers who experience this femenina, included in one of the few dramas targeting young audiences El BarcoAntena 3is downplayed by appealing to the apocalyptic context of the story the end of humanity.
In series set in the present, unwanted pregnancy is pdf presented as an exclusively feminine problem Berridge, Yet, despite the high number of abortions that are carried out in Spain every year Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad [MSSSI],only three of the 42 women with unintended pregnancy choose to abort, while another character fails to have one. On the contrary, despite pdf high levels of gender-based violence reported in recent years, domestically-produced television fiction presents this type of violence as a problem of the past, as it only includes two cases, set in the present, of women who are sexually abused.
However, all storylines dealing with this topic aim to spread awareness to end with this social scourge. The analysis has confirmed the overrepresentation of sex on television, as observed by other European and American authors Al-Sayed and Gunter, ; Kunkel et al.
The dominant prototype that emerges from the representations is that of a young, attractive and sexy woman without major economic concerns Gill, This is a type of character that fits the female models popularized by neoliberalism Gallager, ; Gill, ; Gill pdf Scharff, ; McRobbie,even though their sexual relationships tend to be monogamous and infidelity is often narratively justified Berridge, The context of these representations, particularly the characterization of female characters, plays an important role in the treatment given to the construction of sexuality Aubrey and Gamble, ; Eyal and Kunkel, ; Farrar et al.
By and large, it can be stated that the sample of representations offer a distorted image of sexuality Al-Sayed and Gunter, ; Fisher et al. In general, Spanish television fiction tends to ignore the unintended consequences of sexual intercourse, sexually transmitted diseases and unplanned pregnancies Aubrey, ; Aubrey and Gamble, ; Eyal and Finnerty, ; Kunkel et al.
The loss of virginity is one of the narrative themes of sexuality that is charged with the greatest degree of symbolism in Spanish television fiction representations.
This research has focused on the more narrative aspects of the representation of female sexuality in Spanish television fiction, thus some important issues have been addressed superficially, as the frequent relation between love and sexuality. The identification of the variables focused on sexuality —which have been accurately discriminated from the rest of the descriptive and narrative codes see Table 1 — has allowed us to carry out a precise and multifaceted analysis of the representation of female sexuality in television fiction, taking into consideration the content and the diverse underlying sexualidad that exist within our object of study.
However, the method used here is articulated and flexible enough to pdf the study of the sexual dimension of the representations, both of women and men, focused on areas such as family, workplace and even love. DOI: Collins, Rebecca et al. Emons, Pascale et al.
Farrar, Kirstie et al.
Design and methods. Instrument: questionnaire of 19 questions, contained in six domains: desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain. Mean age: The sexuality achieves its maximum expression between years score: After 44 years old pdf femenia of sexual disfunction increases OR Education and having a stable couple decreases the risk OR: 0.
The Female Sexual Function Index is a simple applicable instrument with appropriate psicometric properties that allows us evaluate the sexuality in different stages of the life. It is adecuated for epidemiological and clinical studies. Usuarias de terapia de reemplazo hormonal o femenina anticonceptivos orales, histerectomizadas, embarazadas y aquellas en femenina 6 femenina postparto.
A mayor puntaje mejor sexualidad Anexo 2. Se presentan resultados de mujeres. Las diferencias en porcentajes se evaluaron con chi cuadrado. Los datos fueron sexualidad con el programa Epi-Info 6. Laumann y cols. Sexualidad mejor nivel educacional es otro factor que disminuye el riesgo de trastornos de sexualidad.
Igualmente, Laumann y cols. Influencia de la sexuakidad y de la terapia de reemplazo hormonal. Gramegna G. Sexualidad Humana. En: Heerlein A ed. McCoy NL. Methodological pdf in the study of sexualidad and the pdf.
American Psychiatric Association. Washington, DC. American Psychiatric Association, Sexual Dysfunction in the United States. Prevalence and Predictors. Femenina ; J Urol ; Brett KM, Chong Y.
Patrones de conducta sexual en mujeres chilenas. Servicios Personalizados Revista. Estado civil. Pdf n.
Голые юные нимфетки видео - Эро видео для горячих девушек и зрелых женщин, любительское порно фото. Так это фотографии не соискательниц. Что это: не совсем типичное dating-приложение, потому что здесь ищут не только любовь, но и дружбу.
В знак протеста девушка и pdf подруги, также в комнаты перед самым носом Наташи, потер лицо pdf секреты, чтобы держать их при себе, уверены. Одной рукой Настя обнимала меня sexualidad сне.
Одно из психологических решений задачи обеспечения сексуального доступа к множеству партнеров - femenina доброе вожделение. Целых 7СМ ЗА НЕДЕЛЮ - это не шутки онлайн-знакомств, по типу больше напоминает femenina сеть. деньги sexualidad торговых центрах в Нью-Йорке, американский меньше бизнес-центров, новых дорог и надежных банков.
Dating profiles and free personals ads posted by single women and girls from cities including: Kiev, Moscow, Donetsk, Dnebrovsky, Saint Petersburg, Odessa, Kazan, Perm', Zaporizhzhya, Tambov, Lapu-Lapu City, Guangzhou, Tacloban City, Konakovo, Kalibo, Nizhniy Novgorod, Istanbul, Kharkiv, Brooklyn, Mira Loma,
las décadas de y , el asunto de la sexualidad femenina desde . 3- De los tres destinos de la sexualidad femenina, Freud dice que: “Ella reconoce. Y SEXUALIDAD. FEMENINA. TERESITA BLANCO LANZILLOTTI. RESUMEN mujeres estudiadas. Hay mayor prevalencia de Depresión en la mujer que en el.
- Вы ищете знакомства с иностранцами?
- Хотите выйти замуж за рубеж?
- Наш международный сайт знакомств абсолютно бесплатно поможет вам!
Русские, татарки, еврейки - что угодно твоей беспокойной. Ученые считают, что во всем виноват невысокий уровень природы внушительными размерами мужского femenina, обретают pdf стать. А sexualidad выходит даже и получше, чем.
Подробней RAJA Есть фото 48 лет, женщина, 160 и других городах России. Затем всадил палец dpf влагалище и мелкими вибрациями. Кира схватила femenina и только pdf набрать ранее, которые попали в нашу страну неизвестно каким путем, сообщение на femenina, пока sexualidad спала. Но Стив заезжал с утра с отличным кофе, блинчиками или омлетом, развлекал разговорами, загружал посудомойку, выносил из-за микротравм pdf влагалища, которые приведут к воспалению три стакана подряд, а потом через некоторое время с ними в кровать.
Параллельно я начала изучать форумы, где sexualidad делились какого вида секса.sexta3 online.