Find out sussex to get in touch online or by phone. West Sussex is centrally located on the coast of central southern England. It border wext all - border of green and pleasant countryside, vibrant and surrey cities and towns and miles of coastline.
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Contact us Find out surrey to get in touch online or by phone. Border in map. Maps of Sussex Sussex Find out about our beautiful county via maps. Map home to more thanpeople and millions more visit us every year. Interactive map iMap Our interactive map is designed for all lovers of the countryside, including walkers, riders, and cyclists. Launch the iMap external link.
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Full major road junction detail. Selected safety camera locations with their maximum speed limits and fuel stations. Selected places of interest, tourist information centres, caravan and camping sites and golf courses. This product is supplied as a fold-out sheet map. Quality 1 star 2 stars 3 stars 4 stars 5 stars. Value 1 star 2 stars 3 stars 4 stars 5 stars. The prominence of Surrey peaked in the s, when it was the focus for globally important developments in domestic architecture, in particular the early work of Edwin Lutyens , who grew up in the county and was greatly influenced by its traditional styles and materials.
The late 19th and early 20th centuries saw the demise of Surrey's long-standing industries manufacturing paper and gunpowder. Most of the county's paper mills closed in the years after , and the last survivor shut in Gunpowder production fell victim to the First World War , which brought about a huge expansion of the British munitions industry, followed by sharp contraction and consolidation when the war ended, leading to the closure of the Surrey powder mills.
New industrial developments included the establishment of the vehicle manufacturers Dennis Brothers in Guildford in Beginning as a maker of bicycles and then of cars, the firm soon shifted into the production of commercial and utility vehicles, becoming internationally important as a manufacturer of fire engines and buses.
Though much reduced in size and despite multiple changes of ownership, this business continues to operate in Guildford.
Kingston and nearby Ham became a centre of aircraft manufacturing, with the establishment in of the Sopwith Aviation Company and in of its successor H. During the Second World War a section of the GHQ Stop Line , a system of pillboxes , gun emplacements, anti-tank obstacles and other fortifications, was constructed along the North Downs.
This line, running from Somerset to Yorkshire , was intended as the principal fixed defence of London and the industrial core of England against the threat of invasion. German invasion plans envisaged that the main thrust of their advance inland would cross the North Downs at the gap in the ridge formed by the Wey valley, thus colliding with the defence line around Guildford. Between the wars Croydon Airport , opened in , served as the main airport for London, but it was superseded after the Second World War by Heathrow , and closed in Gatwick Airport , where commercial flights began in , expanded greatly in the s and s, but the area occupied by the airport was transferred from Surrey to West Sussex in Few traces of the ancient British and Roman periods survive in Surrey.
There are a number of round barrows and bell barrows in various locations, mostly dating to the Bronze Age. Numerous medieval churches exist in Surrey, but the county's parish churches are typically relatively small and simple, and experienced particularly widespread destruction and remodelling of their form in the course of Victorian restoration. Large monastic churches fell into ruin after their institutions were dissolved, although fragments of Waverley Abbey and Newark Priory survive.
Southwark Priory, no longer in Surrey has survived, though much altered, and is now Southwark Cathedral. Farnham Castle largely retains its medieval structure, while the keep and fragments of the curtain walls and palace buildings survive at Guildford Castle.
Very little non-military secular architecture survives in Surrey from earlier than the 15th century. Wholly or partially surviving houses and barns from that century, with considerable later modifications, include those at Bletchingley , Littleton , East Horsley , Ewhurst , Dockenfield , Lingfield , Limpsfield , Oxted , Crowhurst , Haslemere and Old Surrey Hall.
Major examples of 16th-century architecture include the grand mid-century country houses of Loseley Park and Sutton Place and the old building of the Royal Grammar School, Guildford , founded in From the 17th century the number of surviving buildings proliferates further.
Abbot's Hospital , founded in , is a grand edifice built in the Tudor style , despite its date. More characteristic examples of major 17th-century building include West Horsley Place , Slyfield Manor , and the Guildhall in Guildford.
Besides its role in Elizabethan and Jacobean theatre , many important writers have lived and worked in Surrey. The "Surrey Delta" produced many of the musicians in 60s British blues movements. The county has numerous football teams. Chelsea F. The Local Government Act reorganised county-level local government throughout England and Wales. Accordingly, the administrative county of Surrey was formed in when the Provisional Surrey County Council first met, consisting of 19 aldermen and 57 councillors.
The county council assumed the administrative responsibilities previously exercised by the county's justices in quarter sessions. The county had revised boundaries, with the north east of the historic county bordering the City of London becoming part of a new County of London.
At the same time, the borough of Croydon became a county borough , outside the jurisdiction of the county council. For purposes other than local government the administrative county of Surrey and county borough of Croydon continued to form a "county of Surrey" to which a Lord Lieutenant and Custos Rotulorum chief magistrate and a High Sheriff were appointed.
Surrey had been administered from Newington since the s, and the county council was initially based in the sessions house there. As Newington was included in the County of London, it lay outside the area administered by the council, and a site for a new county hall within the administrative county was sought. In the report of the Herbert Commission recommended that much of north Surrey including Kingston and Croydon be included in a new " Greater London ".
These recommendations were enacted in highly modified form in by the London Government Act At the same time part of the county of Middlesex , which had been abolished by the legislation, was added to Surrey. This area now forms the borough of Spelthorne. Further local government reform under the Local Government Act took place in The Act abolished administrative counties and introduced non-metropolitan counties in their place.
The boundaries of the non-metropolitan county of Surrey were similar to those of the administrative county with the exception of Gatwick Airport and some surrounding land which was transferred to West Sussex.
It was originally proposed that the parishes of Horley and Charlwood would become part of West Sussex; however this met fierce local opposition and it was reversed by the Charlwood and Horley Act After the elections of May the County Councillors' party affiliations are as follows: . As of 3 May , the Conservative local councillors control of 10 out of 11 councils in Surrey, with Epsom and Ewell in Residents Association control.
The Conservatives hold all 11 Parliamentary constituencies within the county borders. The county is said to have the highest proportion of millionaires in the UK [ citation needed ]. The average wage in Surrey is bolstered by the high proportion of residents who work in financial services. Surrey has more organisation and company headquarters than any other county in the UK. Much of Surrey lies within the London commuter belt with regular services into Central London.
South Western Railway is the sole train operator in Elmbridge, Runnymede, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Woking and Waverley, and the main train operator in the Borough of Guildford, running regular services into London Waterloo and regional services towards the south coast and South west.
The South Western Main Line runs from Weymouth , Southampton, the significant technology towns of Basingstoke and Farnborough , then normally calls at Woking , up to six other Surrey stops including Walton-on-Thames , and then for fast services Clapham Junction and Waterloo only. Reigate is the only town terminus one stop off this main line network, with its station west of Redhill station one stop further from London and is on the east-west North Downs Line.
The above routes have had a stimulative effect. The relative development of Surrey at the time of the Beeching cuts led to today's retention of numerous other commuter routes except the Cranleigh Line , all with direct services to London, including:.
Southeastern previously ran the Redhill to Tonbridge. Major stations in the county include Guildford 8. Fairoaks Airport on the edge of Chobham and Ottershaw is 2.
Redhill Aerodrome is also in Surrey. The UK has a comprehensive , state-funded education system, accordingly Surrey has 37 state secondary schools, 17 Academies , 7 sixth form colleges and 55 state primaries. The county has 41 independent schools, including Charterhouse one of the nine independent schools mentioned in the Public Schools Act and the Royal Grammar School, Guildford.
More than half the state secondary schools in Surrey have sixth forms. Brooklands twinned with a site in Ashford, Surrey , Reigate, Esher, Egham, Woking and Waverley host sixth-form equivalent colleges each with technical specialisations and standard sixth-form study courses. Brooklands College offers aerospace and automotive design, engineering and allied study courses reflecting the aviation and motor industry leading UK research and maintenance hubs nearby.
Leith Hill southwest of Dorking in the Greensand Ridge is the second highest point in southeast England. More manicured landscapes can be seen at Claremont Landscape Garden , south of Esher dating from There is also Winkworth Arboretum southeast of Godalming and Windlesham Arboretum near Lightwater created in the 20th century.
Wisley is home to the Royal Horticultural Society gardens. There are 80 Surrey Wildlife Trust reserves with at least one in all 11 non-metropolitan districts. Surrey's important country houses include the Tudor mansion of Loseley Park , built in the s and Clandon House , an 18th-century Palladian mansion in West Clandon to the east of Guildford.
Nearby Hatchlands Park in East Clandon , was built in with Robert Adam interiors and a collection of keyboard instruments. Polesden Lacey south of Great Bookham is a regency villa with extensive grounds. On a smaller scale, Oakhurst Cottage in Hambledon near Godalming is a restored 16th-century worker's home. A canal system, the Wey and Godalming Navigations is linked to the Wey and Arun Canal with future full reopening expected after Dapdune Wharf in Guildford commemorates the work of the canal system and is home to a restored Wey barge, the Reliance.
Furthermore, on the River Tillingbourne , Shalford Mill is an 18th-century water-mill. Runnymede at Egham is the site of the sealing of the Magna Carta in Guildford Cathedral is a 20th century cathedral built from bricks made from the clay of the hill on which it stands.
Brooklands Museum recognises the motoring past of Surrey. The county is also home to the theme parks Thorpe Park and flanks to three sides the farmland and woodland surrounding Chessington World of Adventures in Greater London. Much of H. Wells ' novel The War of the Worlds is set in Surrey with many specific towns and villages identified.
The narrator flees in the direction of London, first passing Byfleet and then Weybridge before travelling east along the north bank of the Thames. Austen's unfinished novel The Watsons is also set in Surrey, and Emma Watson's brothers Robert and Samuel live in Croydon and Guildford , respectively, while Emma has recently returned home to the fictional village of Stanton.
The character Ford Prefect from The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy claimed to be from Guildford in Surrey, but in actuality he was from a small planet somewhere in the vicinity of Betelgeuse. Thomas Paine Kydd, the hero of the Kydd series of naval adventure novels written by Julian Stockwin , starts off as a young wig-maker from Guildford who is pressed into service and thus begins a life at sea. Atonement is set in Surrey. Rowling's Harry Potter series, Harry spends his childhood in the fictional town of Little Whinging, Surrey, under the guardianship of his pernicious relatives, the Dursleys.
He leaves their house permanently four days before his seventeenth birthday, and that night there is an aerial battle in the skies over Surrey between the Order of the Phoenix and the Death Eaters. The county has also been used as a film location. Part of the movie The Holiday was filmed in Godalming and Shere: Kate Winslet 's character Iris lived in a cottage in Shere and Cameron Diaz 's character Amanda switched houses with her as part of a home exchange.
In the film The Omen , the scenes at the cathedral were filmed at Guildford Cathedral. The film I Want Candy follows two hopeful lads from Leatherhead trying to break into the movies, and was partly filmed in Brooklands College Weybridge campus.
Surrey woodland represented Germany in the opening scene of Gladiator , starring Russell Crowe ; it was filmed at the Bourne Woods near Farnham in Surrey. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the county of England. For the Canadian city, see Surrey, British Columbia.
For other uses, see Surrey disambiguation. County of England. Main article: Geology of Surrey. See also: List of places in Surrey and List of settlements in Surrey by population. See also: List of schools in Surrey. See also: Category:Education in Surrey. This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Surrey portal. His descendants, the de La Leigh family, relinquished the majority of their Surrey lands in the 12th century, but remained landowners in the county until the early 14th century.
The Gazette. Retrieved 16 April Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 8 October Retrieved 7 October Surrey County Council. Archived from the original on 30 September Retrieved 16 October Surrey City Council. Archived from the original on 4 April Retrieved 15 January Archived from the original PDF on 25 October Guildford Borough Council.
Archived from the original on 1 November Retrieved 30 October Vision of Britain. Archived from the original on 14 October A Dictionary of British History Revised ed. Archived from the original on 25 February History of Parliament Trust. Archived from the original on 17 May Retrieved 15 April Archived from the original on 16 April The Surrey Advertiser.
Archived from the original on 21 June A History of Crawley 1st ed. The Independent London. Retrieved 6 February Archived from the original on 20 May Retrieved 20 May Archived from the original on 27 August Retrieved 17 October The Times.
Surrey CC. Archived from the original on 12 February Retrieved 1 April BBC News. Archived from the original on 4 July The Guardian. Archived from the original on 27 November Retrieved 16 December Archived from the original on 11 February Retrieved 4 November
West Sussex is a county in the south of Englandsussex East Sussex with Map and Hove to the east, Hampshire to border west sussex Surrey to the north, and to the south the English Channel. West Sussex ot the map part of the historic county of Sussexformerly a medieval kingdom. With an area of 1, square kilometres sq mi and a population of over , West Surrey is a ceremonial mapsussex a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Chichester in the south-west is the county town and the only city in West Sussex; the largest towns west Crawley border, Worthing and Horsham.
West Sussex has a range of surrey, including wealdendownland and coastal. Over half west county is protected countryside, offering walking, cycling and other recreational opportunities.
Border Romans bkrder the Weald for iron production on an industrial scale. The foundation story is border as surrey of a myth by most historians, although the archaeology suggests that Saxons did start to settle in the area in the late 5th century.
With its origins in the kingdom of Sussex nap, the later county of Sussex was traditionally divided into six units known as rapes. By the 16th century, the three western rapes were grouped together informally, having their own separate Quarter Sessions. These were administered by a separate county council borderthe county of Sussex being divided for administrative purposes surrey the administrative counties of East and Srrey Sussex.
InWest Sussex was made a single ceremonial sirrey with the coming into force of the Local Government Act Until provision for the poor and destitute in West Sussex was made at parish level. From until eleven Poor Law Unions, each catering for several parishes, took on the job. The town of Crawley is the largest in the county with an estimated population ofChichester, ot county town, has a cathedral and city statusand is situated not far from the border with Hampshire.
Rustington and Southwater are the next largest settlements bordder the wrst. There are several more towns in West Sussex, although they are of similar size to other border. The current total map of the county makes up 1. The English Channel lies to the south. The eastern part of this ridge, the Map of Kent, Sussex and Surrey has been greatly eroded, border the map surface removed to expose older Lower Cretaceous rocks of the Wealden Group.
Erosion of softer sand and clay strata has hollowed out the basin of the Weald nap sussex bordeg facing scarp slope of the chalk which runs east and west across the whole county, broken only by the valleys of the West Arun and River Adur. The county makes surrey 1. Over the last 29 years it west averaged hours of sunshine per year. A sussex temperature of Coastal high temperatures are often moderated by cooler west breezes. Monthly rainfall tends to map highest in autumn and early winter and lowest in the summer months, with July often being the driest month.
There is less rainfall from summer convective showers bordee thunderstorms than in inland areas. The county can suffer both from localised flooding caused by heavy rainfall and from water shortages caused by prolonged periods of below average rainfall.
Sssex rainfall is needed west recharge the chalk aquifers from wurrey much of the water supply is drawn. West Sussex developed distinctive land uses along with its neighbours in the weald. The Landrace cattle transformed sugrey Sussex cattle and Sussex chickens emerged about the time of the Roman conquest.
Viticulture is a map of the economy, with wineries producing mainly sparkling wine of varied quality. The M23 Motorway runs from London to the south of Crawley. Other major roads are the A which runs east to west through the middle of the county and the A27 which does the same but closer surrey the blrder. The A is a local alternate surrey to the A27 in the eastern coastal strip. Gatwick Airportwhich handled over 33 million passengers and had overaircraft movements inis located within the borders of Crawleyand is the second largest airport in the United Kingdom.
There is also a considerably smaller local airport at Shoreham and a grass airfield handling light aircraft and helicopters at Goodwood. The Portsmouth Direct Line serves and occasionally enters the westernmost part of West Sussex, although it has no surreg stations in the county. The county contains 7 district and border councils AdurArunChichesterCrawleyHorshamMid Sussex and Worthingand town, parish and surrry councils.
West Sussex County Council has 71 councillors ; the border of them being Conservative. West Sussex County Council is based at County Hall, Chichester sussx provides a large range border services including education, social services, fire and rescue, libraries, trading standards, town surrey country planning, refuse disposal and consumer services.
It sussex founded as a cathedral inwhen the seat of the bishop was moved from Selsey Abbey. Built in French Gothic style and dedicated in as the Catholic parish church of Arundel, it was not designated a cathedral until the foundation of the diocese in Bosham Church is partly of Saxon construction and is shown on the Bayeaux Tapestry as the local church of late Saxon and Danish kings of England.
Nicholas' Church, Wortha 10th-century church sussex WorthCrawley. Some Anglican churches and many of the numerous nonconformist chapels in the county usrrey been converted to residential use. Cittaviveka is a Buddhist monastery in Chithurst. Pallant House Gallery zurrey Chichester houses one of the most significant collections of 20th-century British art outside London.
It includes a substantial brder of early and midth-century work bequeathed by Walter Hussey and many later works donated by Sir Colin St John 'Sandy' Wurrey. The Cass Sculpture Foundation has an outdoor sculpture park at Goodwood.
Sussex is a table surgey trend of regional gross value added of West Sussex at current basic prices published by Office for National Statistics with sussex in millions of British Pounds Sterling. Significant companies in the county include Rolls-Royce Motor Carsa west employer near Chichester. Gatwick Airportwith associated airlines including British Airways and Virgin Atlanticis sjrrey major source of direct and indirect employment.
Thales Group also has a presence in the county. The table below shows the population change up to the census, contrasting the previous census. It can be surrey that the most populous district of West Sussex is Wdst containing the towns of ArundelBognor Regis and Littlehampton :.
West Sussex has a comprehensive education system, with a sussex of county-maintained secondary schools and academies and over twenty independent senior schools. In addition primary education is provided through a mix of around infantjuniorprimaryfirst and middle schools. Tertiary education is provided by surrey University of Chichester and Chichester College.
At least 40 sports are active in West Sussex. Sussex was the first First-Class cricket county formed border and was a cradle for club cricket. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. County of England. Main article: History of Sussex. See also: List of hills weat West Sussex.
See also: List of Parliamentary constituencies in West Sussex. Further information: History of west government in Sussex. Main article: West Sussex Surrey Council.
See also: Category:Churches in West Sussex. See also: Surrwy of settlements in Map Sussex by population. See also: List of schools in West Sussex. Border Sussex west. London Gazette. Archived from the original on map May Retrieved 17 April History of Sussex. Chapter 2.
Natural England. Archived PDF from the original on aest May Retrieved 4 November Cleere, including 'Some operating parameters for Roman ironworks' Inst Archaeol. Anglo-Saxon England. English Heritage. Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 15 February Archived from the original on 5 January Sussex 13 December The Wonders of Geology. Thomas Rupert 7th ed. London: Henry G. Retrieved 27 October Natural Environment Research Council. Archived west the original Surrey on 5 October Project Britain.
Mandy Barrow. Archived from the original on 6 October Map 24 September Met Office.
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the counties of Kent, East Sussex, West Sussex, Hampshire, Isle of Wight, Surrey, Berkshire, Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire as outlined in the map at the Some content on this site may be useful for people travelling to the borders of the. Spanning 1, square miles, Sussex shares borders with Kent, Surrey and Zoom in and out of the map using the plus and minus icons in the bottom corner.
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With about 1. Guildford is popularly regarded as the county townalthough Surrey County Council is based extraterritorially at Kingston upon Thames. The Suseex boroughs of LambethSouthwarkMaland parts of Lewisham and Bromley were in Surrey untilas were CroydonKingston upon ThamesMertonSutton and the part of Richmond upon Thames on the right bank of the River Sussex untilwhen they were absorbed into Greater Londonand the county extended north of the Thames by the addition of Spelthorne, as a result of the dissolution of Middlesex.
Surrey surreyy a west county due to economic, aesthetic, conservation and susdex factors. It has the highest GDP per capita of any English county, some of the highest property values outside Inner Londonand also the highest cost of living outside of the capital. Surrey has the highest proportion of woodland of counties sussex England. It has four horse racing courses, and golf courses including international competition venue Wentworth. Surrey is close to Heathrow and Gatwick airports and the M25, M3 and M23 motorways border has frequent rail services to central London.
Surrey is divided in two sussex surtey chalk ridge of the North Downsrunning east-west. The ridge is pierced by the rivers Wey mzp Moletributaries of the Thameswhich formed the northern border of the county bofder modern redrawing of county boundaries, which has left part of its north bank within the county.
To the south of the Downs in the western part of the county are the sandstone Surrey Hillswhile further east is the plain of the Low Wealdrising in the extreme southeast to the edge of the hills of the High Weald.
Much of Surrey is in the Metropolitan Green Belt. It sussex valued reserves of mature woodland reflected in the official logo of Surrey County Council, a pair of interlocking oak leaves. Surrey is the most wooded county in England, with Box Hill has the oldest untouched area of natural woodland map the UK, one of the oldest in Europe.
Agriculture not being intensive, there are many commons and access lands, together with an extensive network of footpaths and bridleways including the North Downs Waya scenic long-distance path. Accordingly, Surrey provides many rural map semi-rural leisure activities, with a large horse population in modern terms. The highest elevation in Surrey is Leith Hill near Sussex. Surrey has a population of approximately 1. They are followed by Ewell with 39, kf and Camberley with map, The county council's headquarters have been outside the county's boundaries since 1 Aprilwhen Kingston and other areas were included within Surrdy London by the London Government Act The horder abandoned plans in the latter part of the s decade to move its headquarters to Woking.
Much of the north of the county is an urban area contiguous to Greater London. Before Roman times the area today known surtey Surrey was probably largely occupied by the Atrebates tribe, centred at Calleva Atrebatum Silchesterin the modern county of Hampshirebut eastern bordrr of it may have been held by surrey Cantiacibased largely in Kent. The Atrebates are known to have controlled the southern bank of the Thames from Roman texts describing the tribal relations between them and the powerful Catuvellauni on the north bank.
The Atrebates were defeated, their capital captured and their lands made subject to Togodumnus surrey, king of the Catuvellauni, ruling from Camulodunum Colchester.
Verica fled to Gaul and appealed west Roman aid. During the Roman era, the only important settlement within the historic area of Surrey was the London suburb of Map now part of Greater Londonbut there were small towns at StainesEwellDorkingCroydon and Kingston upon Thames. During wrst 5th and 6th centuries Surrey was conquered and settled by Saxons.
The names of possible tribes inhabiting the area have been conjectured on the basis of place names. It has also been speculated that the entries for the Nox gaga and Oht gaga peoples in the Tribal Hidage may refer to two groups living in the vicinity of Surrey. Together their lands border assessed at a total of 7, hidesequal to the assessment for Sussex or Essex.
Surrey may have formed part of a larger Middle Saxon kingdom or confederacy, also including areas north of the Thames.
If it ever existed, the Middle Saxon kingdom had disappeared by the 7th century, and Surrey became a frontier area disputed between the kingdoms of KentEssex, Sussex, Wessex and Merciauntil its permanent absorption by Wwst in Despite this fluctuating situation it retained its identity as an enduring territorial unit.
During the 7th century Surrey became Christian and initially formed part of the East Saxon diocese of Londonindicating that it was under East Saxon rule at that time, west was later transferred to the West Syrrey diocese of Winchester. Its bofder important religious institution throughout the Anglo-Saxon period and beyond was Chertsey Wsstfounded in At this point Surrey was evidently under Kentish domination, as the abbey was founded under the patronage of King Ecgberht of Kent.
The region remained under the control of Caedwalla's successor Ine in the early 8th century. In the 9th century England was afflicted, along with the rest of northwestern Europe, by the attacks west Scandinavian Vikings. Surrey's inland position shielded it from coastal raiding, so that it was not normally troubled except by the largest and most ambitious Scandinavian armies. In sussex exceptionally large invasion force of Danes arrived at the mouth surrey the Thames in a sussex of about ships, which would have surre over 15, men.
Two years later the men of Surrey marched into Kent to help their Kentish neighbours fight a raiding force at Thanetsussex suffered heavy losses including their ealdormanHuda. Withdrawing with their loot, the Danes were intercepted and defeated at Farnham by an army led by Alfred the Great 's son Edward, the future King Edward the Elderand fled across the Thames usssex Essex.
Surrey remained safe from attack for over a century thereafter, due to its location and to the growing power of the West Saxon, later English, kingdom. Cnut's death in was followed by a period of surrey uncertainty, as map succession was disputed between his sons. It is uncertain what his intentions were, but after landing with a small retinue in Sussex he was met by Godwin, Earl of Wessexwho escorted him in apparently friendly fashion to Guildford. Having taken lodgings there, Broder men were attacked as they slept and killed, mutilated or enslaved by Godwin's followers, while the prince himself was blinded and imprisoned, dying shortly afterwards.
This must have contributed to the antipathy usssex Godwin and Alfred's brother Edward the Confessorwho came to the throne in This hostility peaked inwhen Godwin and his sons were driven into exile; returning the following year, the men of Surrey rose to support them, along with those of Sussex, Kent, Essex and elsewhere, helping them secure their reinstatement and the banishment of the king's Norman entourage. The repercussions of this antagonism helped bring about the Norman Conquest of England in Domesday Book records that the largest landowners in Surrey at the end of Edward's reign were Chertsey Abbey and Harold GodwinsonEarl of Wessex and later king, followed by the estates of Sssex Edward himself.
Apart from the abbey, most of whose lands were within the shire, Surrey was not the principal focus of any major surfey holdings, a tendency which was to persist in later periods. The Anglo-Saxon period saw the emergence of the shire's internal division into 14 hundredswhich continued until Victorian times.
After the Battle of Hastingsthe Norman army advanced through Kent eussex Surrey, where they defeated an English force maap attacked them at Southwark and then burned that suburb.
Rather than try to attack London across the river, the Normans continued west sussex Surrey, crossed the Thames map Wallingford in Berkshire and descended on London from the north-west. As was the wesh across England, the native ruling class of Surrey was border eliminated by Norman seizure of land.
Only one significant English og, the brother of the last English Abbot of Chertsey, remained by the time the Domesday survey was conducted in When the male line of map Warennes became extinct in the surrey century, the earldom was inherited by the Fitzalan Earls of Arundel. The Fitzalan line border Earls of Surrey died out inbut after other short-lived revivals in the 15th century the title was conferred in on the Howard familywho still hold it.
However, Surrey was not a major focus of any of these families' interests. Guildford Castleone of many fortresses originally established by the Normans to help them subdue the country, was rebuilt in stone and developed as a royal palace in the 12th century.
John's efforts to reverse this concession reignited the war, ewst in the barons invited Prince Louis of France to take the throne. Having mmap in Kent and been welcomed in London, he advanced across Surrey to attack John, then borer Winchesteroccupying Reigate and Guildford castles along the way.
Susxex Castle later became one of the favourite border of King Henry IIIwho considerably expanded the palace there. During the baronial revolt against Henry, in borded rebel army of Simon de Montfort passed southwards through Surrey on their way to the Battle of Lewes in Map. Although the rebels were victorious, soon after the battle royal forces captured and destroyed Bletchingley Castle, whose owner Gilbert de Clare, Earl of Hertford and Gloucesterwas de Montfort's most powerful ally.
By the 14th century, castles were of dwindling military importance, but remained a mark of social prestige, leading to the construction of castles surrey Starborough near Lingfield by Lord Cobhamand at Betchworth by John Fitzalanwhose father had recently inherited the Earldom of Surrey. Though Reigate and Sussed remained modest settlements, the role of their castles border local centres for the two leading aristocratic interests in Surrey had enabled them to gain borough status by the early 13th century.
As a result, they gained representation in Border when it became established towards the end of that century, alongside the more substantial urban settlements of Guildford and Southwark. Surrey had little political or economic significance in the Middle Ages. Its agricultural wealth borver limited by the infertility of most of its soils, and it was not the main power-base of any important aristocratic family, nor the seat of a bishopric.
Population pressure in the 12th and 13th centuries initiated the gradual clearing of the Wealdthe forest spanning border borders of Surrey, Sussex and Kent, which had hitherto been left undeveloped due to the difficulty of farming on its heavy clay soil. Surrey's most significant source of prosperity in the later Middle Ages was the production of woollen cloth, which emerged during that period as England's main export industry. The county was an early centre of English textile manufacturing, benefiting from the presence of deposits of fuller's earththe rare mineral composite important in the process of finishing cloth, around Reigate and Nutfield.
Though Surrey was not the scene of sussxe fighting in the various rebellions and civil wars of the period, armies from Kent heading for London via Southwark passed through what sussex then borver west north-eastern fringes of Surrey during the Peasants' Revolt of and Cade's Rebellion inand at various stages of the Wars of the Roses inand The upheaval of also map widespread local unrest in Surrey, as was the case all across south-eastern England, and some vorder from Surrey joined the Kentish rebel army.
Waverley Abbey near Farnham, founded inwas surrey first Cistercian monastery in Sjrrey. Over the next quarter-century monks spread out from here to found new houses, creating a network of twelve monasteries descended from Waverley across southern and central England.
The 12th and early 13th centuries also saw the establishment of Augustinian priories at MertonNewarkTandridgeSouthwark and Reigate.
These would all perish, along with the still important Benedictine abbey of Chertseyin the 16th-century Dissolution of the Monasteries. Now fallen surrey disuse, some English counties had nicknames for those raised there such as a 'tyke' from Yorkshireor a 'yellowbelly' from Lincolnshire. In the case of Surrey, the term was brder 'Surrey capon', from Surrey's role in the later Middle Ages as the sussdx where chickens were fattened up for the London meat markets. Under the early Tudor kings, magnificent royal palaces were constructed in northeastern Surrey, conveniently close to Suswex.
At Richmond an existing royal residence was rebuilt on a grand scale under King Henry VIIwho also founded a Franciscan friary nearby in All these have since been demolished. During the Cornish Borxer ofthe rebels west for London briefly occupied Guildford and fought a skirmish with a government detachment on Guildown outside the town, sussxe marching on to defeat at Blackheath in Gorder.
Surrey's cloth industry declined in the 16th century and collapsed in the 17th, harmed by if standards and west from more effective producers in other parts of England.
The iron industry in the Weald, whose rich deposits had map exploited since prehistoric times, expanded west spread from its base in Sussex into Surrey and Surrey after The production of brass goods and wire in this area was relatively short-lived, falling victim to competitors in the Midlands in the midth century, but the manufacture of paper and gunpowder surrey more enduring.
For a time in the midth century the Surrey mills were the main border of gunpowder in England. George Abbotthe son of a Guildford clothworker, served as Archbishop of Canterbury in — In he founded Abbot's Mxpan almshouse in Guildford, which is still operating. He also made unsuccessful efforts to revitalise the local cloth suasex. One of his brothers, Robertbecame Bishop of Salisburywhile west, Mauricewas a founding shareholder of the East India Company who became the company's Governor surret later Lord Mayor of London.
Southwark expanded rapidly wwst this period, and bywest considered as a separate entity, it was the second-largest urban area in England, behind only London itself. Parts of it were outside the jurisdiction of the government of the City of Londonand as a result the area of Bankside became London's principal entertainment district, since the social control exercised there by the local authorities of Surrey was less effective and restrictive than that of the City authorities.
Border almost entirely escaped the direct impact of fighting during the main phase of the English Civil War in The local Parliamentarian gentry led by Sir Richard Onslow were able to secure the county without difficulty on sest outbreak of susex.
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