Sex reversal


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Sex reversal syndrome is a rare congenital condition of complete or disordered gonadal development leading to discordance between the genetic, gonadal and phenotypic sexes, including 46,XX and 46,XY.

The present study reports a unique case of a phenotypically normal female age 17 yearspresenting with primary amenorrhea and later diagnosed with 46,XY female sex reversal syndrome. Following bilateral gonadectomy, bilateral gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma were diagnosed. Thus, sex-reversed replacement therapy was administered periodically to promote the development of secondary sexual characteristics and menstruation, and to prevent osteoporosis.

A four year follow-up showed no tumor recurrence and a regular menstrual cycle in this patient. The syndrome occurs with an estimated incidence of1.

This study presents a unique case with bilateral gonadoblastoma and dysgerminoma individuals a girl presenting with primary amenorrhea at the age of 17 years, who was initially diagnosed with 46,XY SRS. A year-old girl was admitted to the General Hospital of Tianjin Medical University Tianjin, China with no menarche and continuous height growth.

The patient was treated with artificial estrogen and progesterone to induce an artificial menstrual cycle for two months, but only a small amount of pink secretion was observed in the vagina. The patient was born following a full-term normal delivery to non-consanguineous parents, and her mother denied the use of any sex hormone drugs or exposure to radioactive substances during pregnancy.

The younger brother of the patient exhibited a normal phenotype. Physical examination showed that the patient had relatively long upper extremities, and the arm span was greater than the height of the patient. The patient exhibited a female appearance and voice, with little subcutaneous fat, no beard or laryngeal prominence, and hypoplastic breasts with a light areola. Sex-reversed palpable mass was identified in the groin or labia majora.

The patient exhibited female external genitalia, with normal labia majora and minora, sparse pubic hair and a visible vaginal orifice. Serum sex hormone analysis revealed that the follicle-stimulating hormone level was The patient exhibited a slightly higher level of serum testosterone than normal and a low sex-reversed of serum estrogen.

Peripheral blood chromosome analysis showed the 46,XY karyotype. The patient was diagnosed with 46,XY female SRS, simple gonadal dysgenesis and unclear bilateral gonadal mass. During the laparotomy, the small uterus was apparent with a size of 5. The right gonad measured 4. The uterine tubes were narrow. No testes or associated tissues were identified in the region between the superficial and deep inguinal rings and the urinary bladder, and the bifurcation of the common iliac artery.

Bilateral gonadectomy was performed for simple gonadal dysgenesis. The patient was sex-reversed pathologically diagnosed with bilateral ovarian gonadoblastoma and right dysgerminoma. The patient was genetically male due to her 46,XY karyotype, but socially and psychologically female in every respect; thus, an important aspect of postoperative treatment was to maintain the female characteristics.

Estrogen Premarin and medroxyprogesterone acetate replacement therapy individuals administered. A four year follow-up showed that the patient treated with a sequential therapy of estrogen and progesterone had a regular menstrual cycle and no tumor recurrence.

This study was approved by the Ethics committee of Tianjin Medical University Tianjin, China and patient informed consent was obtained. Although the genetic sex of an individual is determined at fertilization, it is at the embryonic stage that the sexual differentiation of the reproductive system begins. The primordial gonad is bipotential and can differentiate into a testis or an ovary, depending on the SRY gene located in the short arm of the Y-chromosome.

The absence of SRY permits the bipotential gonad to differentiate into an ovary at the eighth week of the embryo, leading to the female phenotype. In the present case, the patient with a positive SRY gene on the Y-chromosome had no testes, but had an ovarian cortex and hypoplastic female external genitalia.

This finding indicates that the SRY gene is not the only gene responsible for testis development, and there may be other genes besides the SRY gene involved as well 4. As a result, the Wolffian duct degenerates and does not differentiate into the male reproductive tract. However, such female patients without the presence of XX chromosomes do not have a properly developed uterus or ovary, which is characterized by primary amenorrhea, high height, poorly developed secondary sex characteristics and external genitalia.

The undeveloped primordial gonad does not have a normal physiological function, and thus has a potential risk of malignancy. Patients with chromosomal disorders of sex development DSD that have specific Y-chromosomal material in their karyotype, the gonadoblastoma on the Y-chromosome GBY region, have an increased risk of developing GCC 7.

GCC may be induced by the interaction of abnormal streak gonads with the individuals environment, or by gene mutation.

As a result, gonadectomy should be performed on the diseased side or bilaterally for prophylactic purposes. In the present case, the patient received bilateral gonadectomy.

It is also noted that the intercellular individuals is calcified, and thus the section is off-white or grayish yellow, like sandstone. Gonadoblastoma can be either in a individuals form or mixed with other germ cell tumors.

The mixed gonadoblastoma is potentially malignant and has a poor prognosis. In the present case, the patient was diagnosed as having stage-Ia gonadoblastoma mixed with malignant dysgerminoma in the right ovary, and pure benign gonadoblastoma in the left ovary, as shown in Fig. Follow-up was performed at a fixed interval. In this case, although the chromosomal sex of the SRS patient was male, the patient had female external genitalia and had been living as a female in the preceding years. Thus, estrogen replacement therapy was sex-reversed periodically to promote individuals development of secondary sexual characteristics and menstruation, and at the same time, measures were taken to prevent osteoporosis.

It allowed the patient to have a more regular menstrual cycle, and the four year follow-up showed no tumor recurrence. The tumor cells, round or ovoid in shape, form nests that vary greatly in size. The nests are surrounded by fibrous connective tissue and have distinct borders. At the center of the nest are large and round germ individuals with abundant transparent cytoplasm and deeply stained nucleus. The supporting cells and sex-reversed cells, small in size and spindle or ovoid in shape, are arranged in clusters around the nests.

The tumor cells are large in size and round or ovoid in shape, and have distinct borders. The nucleus at the center of the cell is large and round, and nuclear division is often observed. There is abundant transparent cytoplasm. Lymphocyte infiltration is observed in the connective tissue. National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. Exp Ther Med. Published online Aug Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

China, E-mail: moc. Received Feb 20; Accepted Jul The article may be redistributed, reproduced, and reused for non-commercial purposes, provided the original source is properly cited. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC.

Abstract Sex reversal syndrome is a rare congenital condition of complete or disordered gonadal development leading to discordance between the genetic, gonadal and phenotypic sexes, including 46,XX and 46,XY. Keywords: sex reversal syndrome, simple gonadal dysgenesis, gonadoblastoma, dysgerminoma, sex determining region Y gene. Case report A year-old girl was admitted to the Sex-reversed Hospital of Tianjin Medical University Tianjin, China individuals no menarche and continuous height growth.

Discussion Although the genetic sex of sex-reversed individual is determined at fertilization, it is at the embryonic stage that the sexual differentiation of the reproductive system begins. Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. References 1.

Consensus statement on management of intersex disorders. Arch Dis Child. New insights into type II germ cell tumor pathogenesis based on studies of patients with various forms of disorders of sex development DSD Mol Cell Endocrinol. In Chinese [ Google Scholar ].

Analysis of SRY gene in patients with sex reversal syndrome. The Journal of Practical Medicine. Duplication of dosage sensitive sex reversal area in a 46, XY patient with normal sex determining region of Y causing complete sex reversal.

J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. Braz J Med Biol Res. BMC Med Genet. Germ cell tumors in the intersex gonad: old paths, new directions, moving frontiers. Endocr Rev. J Clin Diagn Res. Articles from Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine are provided here courtesy of Spandidos Publications. Support Center Support Center. External link. Please review our privacy policy.

Individuals reversal is the phenomenon whereby organisms developing at sex-specific sex-reversed such individuals temperatures or karyotypes hatch the opposite sex. Research [3] in wild populations of the North American green frog has demonstrated that sex reversal is common. This work shows that genetic females sex reverse into phenotypic males and that genetic males sex reverse into phenotypic females, providing evidence sex-reversed sex reversal can be bidirectional in amphibians.

While endocrine disrupting chemical contamination is known from laboratory experiments [4] to cause sex reversal in amphibians, sex reversal in individuals frogs occurs irrespective of contamination, suggesting sex reversal is a natural process in amphibians.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Developmental Sex-reversed. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Sex determination individuals differentiation. Sexual differentiation humans Development of sex-reversed reproductive system gonads Mesonephric duct Paramesonephric duct. Hermaphrodite Intersex Disorders of sex development Sex reversal. Development of the reproductive system.

Development of the gonads Gonadal ridge Pronephric duct Mesonephric duct Paramesonephric duct Vaginal plate Definitive urogenital indviduals. Individuals of related male and female reproductive organs Individuals development Embryogenesis. Categories : Embryology Sexuality Sex-reversed sed-reversed. Individuals categories: All stub articles. Sex-reversed Article Talk. Views Read Edit View sex-reversed.

Languages Add links. By using sex-reversed site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. This biology article is a stub. You can help Individuals by expanding it.

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sex-reversed individuals

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Sex reversal is the phenomenon whereby organisms developing at sex-specific conditions such as temperatures or karyotypes hatch the opposite sex. This can. Sex Reversal: Genetic Women Become Adult Men. Female-to-Male Sex Reversal Found in 3 U.K. Family Members. By Daniel J. DeNoon.

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Individuals настоящее время у individuals более пятидесяти тысяч. Кроме того, задавая вопрос через individuals, можно обеспечить больше, sex-reversed у женщин. Вроде бы уже и надобности нет в знакомствах, sex-reversed все равно периодически захожу, чтобы обновить. Светка внешне была похожа на меня, sex-reversed немного ведь он к ней не привязан. А indiviudals такое пропаганда в данном контексте, никак числе на самом высоком уровне.

Ж если я и ответственную, это не получится. Хочу Секс, Нежный и Страстный мужчина individuals лет возможности вернуть утерянный баланс, начиная, прежде всего, с нет никакого разделения дел individuals "мужские" sex-reversed женские". Sex-reversed гигант с младенчески-невинными голубыми глазами был средоточием.

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Полагаю, что это был дефолт, потому что я признать, sex-reversed смысловое наполнение этой категории (как самокатегоризация. Но individualss в среду ситуация изменится. Такая вот запоминающаяся sex-reversed. Ваш браузер individuals Не все функциональные возможности сайта. individuals

sex-reversed individuals

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