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Introduction

Eskandarieh 1H. Kamali 2Sex. Hosseini 3M. Poursadeghfard 4A. Moghadasi 1M. Our goal is to evaluate sex-specific changes of prevalence and incidence and overall trend patterns. We design a questionnaire shoraz sex important epidemiologic data sfx female to male ratio in different shiraz of MS patients containing gender and familial history of MS in different degrees of relatives and general population via Joinpoint sex analysis.

Chi-square test analysis was used for shiraz significance of gender frequency difference among subgroups with STATA. The average of female sex male ratio in MS and familial history of MS patients from to were and 2. The trend of female to male ratio in MS patients decreased from 3 to 2. The trend of female to male ratio in familial history of MS patients shkraz from 2.

Conclusion: The decreasing pattern of female to male ratio observed in Iran, unlike the general pattern shiraz the increasing female to male ratio worldwide, which could be due ssex a more quick increase in the incidence of male patients, caused by actual increase based on relevant environmental factors. If these cookies are disabled, sex large subset of the functionality provided shiraz the Platform sex either be shiraz or cease to work as expected.

Performance cookies are used to analyse how visitors use shiraz website shiraz order to provide a better user experience. Register Sign In. Type of Content. Advanced Minimize. For shiraz functionality of ssx site it is necessary to sex JavaScript. Here are the instructions how to enable JavaScript in your web browser.

Sex ratio of multiple sclerosis in Tehran, Iran, a population-based study. Sharareh Shiraz Contributions. Dex us. Contact us. Tweets by ectrimscongress. Anonymous User Privacy Sex. Performance Cookies Performance cookies are used to analyse how visitors use a sex in order to provide a better user experience. Save Settings.

Recent Posts

Female Sex workers FSWs are a marginalized group. Although some studies have shown various types of violence against sex workers, it is a subject which needs more in-depth knowledge.

This is a conventional content study conducted on 18 street sex workers in Shiraz, Iran. The present study observed that sex workers had extensive experience in five forms of violence: physical, barbaric, psychological, sexual, deception and robbery. Moreover, violence was deep-rooted in their previous experiences prior to becoming a prostitute, leading to the formation of yet another type of violence, called hidden slavery with male or female pimps.

To improve the general health of this group, it is recommended that they be supported by social institutions and be provided with psychological consultations. Violence has several forms, one of which is violence against women. A growing number of studies have documented the high prevalence of intimate partner violence and sexual violence against women worldwide. There are various sociological theories about violence against women.

The critical structuralism theories associated with the structures of the social system are the cause of violence against women.

For example, shiraz feminist theory sees intimate partner violence as an expression of gender-based domination of women by men. Pierre Bourdieu believes shiraz symbolic power which is related to the structures of the society creates gender domination.

For example, symbolic violence is here defined as the ideas and shiraz of a ruling cultural class e. Recently, the Iranian government has acknowledged FSW as one of the groups most vulnerable to HIV, who urgently need prevention and care services.

Because this phenomena is illegal in Iran, there is no clear evidence about it. In addition, there is an ambiguous overlap between prostitution and other forms of sexual relationship such as temporary marriage which is legal but informal in the context of Iran, 21 white marriage 22 and bondswoman.

There is yet another type of illegal sexual relationship, where girls or divorced women who have emotional problems or sexual needs, temporarily go out with a boy and have secret sexual relationships.

In such a chaotic system, it is not easy to draw a line between different types of sexual relationship. Despite such complexity and based on the definition of prostitution as a sexual sex for money, it seems that FSWs work in two main locales: street and clubs or flats.

However, supply and demand system, age of FSWs, attractiveness, and social problems such as homelessness, poverty, divorce, economical corruptions, and addiction determine the price of selling sex. In such a turbulent market, sex is cheap goods where some FSWs even sell their sex for about 5 dollars or maybe less.

Although some studies have been done on the subject, the quality and type of violence against FSWs is yet to be fully investigated. Generally, there are several types of violence, such as self-directed violence, interpersonal violence, and collective violence.

Moreover, violence can be of physical, sexual, psychological, deprivation or neglect natures. This is a qualitative content analysis study conducted inin Shiraz, Iran. Street sex workers who refer to this center are trained to have safe sex.

Because this center provides real samples, we selected it for the collection of our samples. Women who were informed of the study plan participated in the study for data gathering. After presenting the objectives of the study to sex workers, those ready to participate in the study were shiraz in the private room of the center. They were paidRials for their time, and asked for permission to record their interviews. Interviews started with open-ended questions about their experiences, reasons for entry into sex work and challenges.

One of the medical experts was responsible for conducting the interviews, each lasting for 30 min on average. The subjects were interviewed after elucidating the research objectives and setting up an environment of reliability.

The interviews were recorded digitally and further transcribed. Based on saturation criteria, 18 subjects were finally selected. Data analysis was done based on conventional content analysis. After extracting the meaning units and exploring the similarities and differences in the data, segments of data were sorted independently into subcategories, and finally the codes were explored.

Every theme was, therefore, interpreted according to meaning units, subcategories and codes. Each transcript was coded independently by two researchers. To achieve consensus, they discussed their experiences to ensure that each understood the code and was able to identify segments of the text that best described a theme.

Where disagreements were noted, the researchers discussed their difficulties, clarified the difference in their opinions, and agreed to a final classification. Although researchers had previous literature, without any pre-determined theoretical frameworks, all codes were taken from the data through repeated reading. Through this approach, we tried to achieve credibility and authenticity. Member check was used to optimize the validity of qualitative research findings. Due to the sensitivity shiraz the subject, this study was approved by the Sex Committee of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences.

About 87 codes, 15 subcategories and 6 categories were extracted from the data. The results of the study showed that all sex experienced at least one type of violence. They experienced so much violence that became natural to them. Specifically, physical and psychological violence were common among them. This experience had started in their childhood or when they got married at an early age and lived with their husbands. Actually, it can be said that their psyche is traumatized because of the many bad experiences they have been through.

The following are the types of violence they had to undergo: physical, barbaric, psychological, sexual, deception and robbery, and hidden slavery.

Twelve people had experienced physical violence such as being beaten with a stick, belt and a slap on the face. They were violated by their brothers, stepmothers, lovers and husbands. In some cases, these types of experience had begun during childhood. When I was a kid, my mom died and my dad got married a year later. My father had several partners and was a drug addict and my stepmother was a bad person. Experiencing physical violence through brothers can be due to conflicts within the families.

My brother and I used Heroin; Heroin usage is not different in males and females, but he did not like me smoking it, so he always hit me. He would throw me in the shower and take my bra and panties off, soak my body and beat me with his belt buckle" FSW ID 3. Many of the participants had experienced physical violence by their husbands or lovers, which was a daily routine, and their customers.

Generally, experiencing physical violence was common among many of the participants, who expected to encounter physical violence on a daily basis. Barbaric violence, a type of inhumane physical violence, can become so severe as to threaten life.

Generally, this form of violence is common among FSWs, and street FSWs are more bound to be exposed to such kind of violence. Women in such cases experienced branding and violent beating which led to paralysis or near-death conditions. One day, she hit me in the head in a way that I fell unconscious; then, Shiraz remembered going to bed at night and not being able to stand up the next morning; my hands and feet were paralyzed, a situation I was in for two years.

As this statement shows, the participant had experienced barbaric violence when she was 7 years old. At that time, she was robbed of her childhood in the worst possible way. Barbaric violence was not just limited to their childhood; it further entered their underground world of addiction, drug trafficking and prostitution. The shiraz story is a true story about the barbaric violence of customers against prostitutes.

The worst type sex violence I was witness to was a woman whose costumer had branded her eye with a burring metal stick. Another girl told me the story of two boys who went with one girl. They had used methamphetamine and were delusional. They thought that the girl was shiraz lamb and they clade her throat. Then, they took her flesh for the person who was guarding the place and told him "we have brought you lamb meat". FSW ID 4. This statement sex three of the worst barbaric behaviors of customers towards FSWs.

Since prostitution is an underground work associated with drug and alcohol used by customers, barbaric violence is one of the worst hardships that a prostitute has to endure. Psychological violence, also common among sex, can take the forms of permanent fear, feeling of guilt in certain cases, emotional suppression by other family members, and worrying about drug or alcohol abuse on the part of customers which can ultimately lead to emotional or mental trauma.

Since SFWs are a marginalized group, they think they do not have the right to defend themselves. So, they have experienced psychological violence throughout their lives. In some cases, psychological violence began from their childhood, even prior to becoming prostitutes. She was very pessimistic and skeptical. Living with a dysfunctional family, with its diverse problems, was yet another dimension of psychological violence.

Many of the participants had problems such as family conflicts, poverty and addiction which intensified their psychological issues.

For example, participant No. She was forced to provide drugs for them from a very young age. My whole family were addicts, too. My stepfather used sex beat me. Another form of psychological problems is related to prostitution trade. Working as a prostitute without any rights coupled with being weak and fragile impose a great psychological pressure, creating an atmosphere of constant fear.

Fear of being caught by the police, the sense of shame if the customer is an acquaintance, and being forced into doing something they do not want to and being beaten if they do not obey are the main psychological conditions that such people have to face. Unprotected sex, and realizing that they have to sleep with more than one person are among other challenges. All participants had experienced diverse forms of psychological violence before and after entering prostitution and had lived with continuous fear.

I ask my clients to finish quickly. Fear of contracting sexually transmitted diseases is yet another mental stressor. Most of the customers want to have unprotected sex, so they are constantly worried.

According to their statements, most customers request unprotected sex. Sexual sex is any act or attempt to perform a sexual act through violence or force, also called molestation.

Recommendations

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sex shiraz

May 22, at pm anti-fascismShiraz and designcapitalist crisiscultureGermanyhistoryhumanismJim Dmodernismsatiresex workerswar. Along with Helmut Herzfeld who became John Heartfield he introduced photomontage to the mainstream. The Berlin to which I returned was a cold and grey city. What I saw made me loathe most of my fellow men; everything I could say has been recorded in my drawings.

I drew drunkards; puking men; men with clenched fists cursing at the sex men playing cards on the coffins of the women they had murdered. I drew a man, shiraz filled with fright, washing blood from his hands… I was each one of the characters I drew, the champagne-swilling glutton favoured by fate no less than the poor beggar standing with outstretched hands in the rain.

This exhibition is simply unmissable. Permalink Leave a Comment. August 8, at am Jackie Mcdonoughsex workersunionswomenworkers.

This book provides the first global survey and analysis of the various attempts to unionise sex workers. But, as the book shows, there have been a surprising sex of attempts to do just that in many countries, whether that be sex workers creating their own unions or joining existing ones. Generating effective collective representation has been even more difficult. The response from sex industry owners and operators has varied from murder to intimidation to dismissal to paternalism.

As well as this, hostility from sections of the left and the established union movement have had to be faced as well. An Agency of their Own pulls no punches in assessing the successes and failures of sex worker organising. And this points to the most appropriate form of unionisation — occupational labour unions — for sex workers in their quest for control over their working lives. A previous Shiraz piece on the same topic, here. Permalink 2 Comments. April 20, at pm Champagne Charliesex workerstwatunions.

We would welcome guest reviewers. There, right in front of me, was Derek Simpson. He stared at me straight away. I ordered a drink, looked up at the dancers in bikinis, shiraz then looked around, and Derek was gone. May 18, at am Caroline Ssex workers.

May 3, at pm Human rightssex workersvoltairespriest. This was sent to the blog email address the day before yesterday, and I thought it would be of interest to our readers. She is facing charges of assisting in the management of a brothel yet shiraz was only an occasional visitor at the premises and her primary role was to ensure the safety of other women working there. She is due to appear at Highbury Magistrates Court on 6 May.

We enclose below a model letter and a list of points that you may want to raise in addition to whatever other concerns you sex have. Kier Starmer privateoffice cps. Ms W had no responsibility for either flat.

She is not a tenant, did not hold keys, and does not pay any of the bills. She was an occasional visitor and her role was to ensure the safety of other women. Two years ago, she bravely escaped from a violent partner after 28 years of abuse. She is presently struggling to support herself, her disabled daughter and elderly mother who is housebound having suffered a stroke.

Any prosecution would have a severe detrimental effect on her mental and physical wellbeing and on the welfare of her daughter and mother. Alleged complaints against the flats were found by police to be unfounded. The police made four visits in one month to the Kingsway flat claiming that they had received complaints that a woman was heard calling for help and that there had been a serious assault in the flat.

Officers visited and investigated and found no evidence of this or of any nuisance. PC Barrington, the local officer also visited shiraz address at least three times during this period and found nothing to report.

The only charges to arise from these raids are for brothel-keeping offences. There is widespread opposition, including among members of parliament and peers, to women being criminalised for working collectively shiraz consensually.

There is no evidence of force, coercion, violence, abuse or trafficking at these flats. Why are charges being brought? We call your attention to statements from ministers and other parliamentarians that women working together in premises should not constitute a crime. InHome Office minister Fiona Mactaggart proposed changes to the prostitution laws:. Very small scale operations can operate in a way that is not disruptive to neighbours.

Public opposition to the arrest and prosecution of sex workers is centred on concern for safety and an acknowledgment, particularly since the Ipswich murders, that criminalisation deters women from reporting violence and makes them more vulnerable to attack. Ms W, like other friends and colleagues of women working in the sex industry, was the first line of defence against violent attacks.

Charges of brothel-keeping being brought against women in this situation will force women to work alone. The public is also increasingly concerned at police priorities which result in 15 officers raiding premises where women are working consensually while the investigation of rape and other violence continues to be downgraded and dismissed.

Following the revelations of police incompetence over the trials of John Worboys and Kirk Reid and the publication of the damning IPCC report on police rape investigation, Women Against Rape, whom we work with closely, said. Criminalisation sex women in prostitution. Ms W has no convictions for prostitution offences. If she is convicted it will ruin her chances of finding other employment.

How can a prosecution be justified when there is no evidence of harm or nuisance being caused and where the prosecution would have a severe detrimental affect on a woman who is struggling to manage and has other vulnerable family members dependent on her? If this prosecution were to go ahead, many would view it as vindictive and persecutory. We sex respectfully ask that you exercise your sex and drop this prosecution.

We are available to answer any questions or provide any further information you may require. March 29, at pm Caroline Slabour partysex workers. Meanwhile, her own husband sex actively thwarting her plans to bring emancipation to these bad lasses by exploiting them even further. Yes — Mr. Jacqui Smith has downloaded prostitutes and charged the taxpayer for the sex of doing so!

I for one am sickened by the hypocrisy. Shall we see what the Sundays have to say? The revelation is an embarrassment to Ms Smith, who last month faced criticism for claiming taxpayer-funded allowances for a second home while living with her sister. Shiraz not going well for Jacqui anyway, is it? This could [crosses fingers] finish her.

As she fought for her political life last night, Ms Smith apologised after being confronted by the Sunday Express. The Mirror — Home Secretary Jacqui Smith submitted expenses claim for adult films watched by husband —. One more? The porn bit. The media have gloated over his humiliation at having to apologiseand to be fair I bet he was fucking mortified.

Fair enough to get on your high horse about the films being charged to her expenses, but simply moralising on the watching of pornography — FAIL. March 8, at pm lap dancingrightssex workersunionsvoltairespriest. It does sound nasty at points:. In order to make money, I acted shiraz. I had to dodge shiraz gropes, pinching and slaps even though, officially, there was no touching allowed.

I felt the stress. If nothing else, this certainly reinforces my own pre-conception about the sweaty, furtive or drunk shiraz boorish types whom one sees heading into lap dancing clubs across the country. Furthermore, the people who ran the particular club that Stavonina De Montagnac is talking about sound sex callous and unconcerned for the welfare of their staff, and in need sex a good keelhauling from the unions.

Some dancers pushed the boundaries, prostituting themselves, and the club turned a blind eye. Many of the women were young, shy and still finding their feet in life.

Sex there were those in their 30s, some with university degrees, who came in because they said that was the only way they could pay the mortgage. Some of my colleagues had drug problems, many suffered from mental health issues such as depression, eating disorders, low self-esteem or disorders associated with past abuse. These were vulnerable people who stripped to survive. We clung to the idea that women have been making sacrifices for the greater good of their families for centuries, to keep everything together.

But really, how many women would even contemplate going into lap dancing if there was a real choice of other well-paid jobs available to them, with flexible working hours? Again, my first thoughts were that such workplace exploitation is quite appalling, and that people in such situations need assistance. Also, lap dancing is, for obvious reasons, not the last-ditch desperation method of earning money that, say, street prostitution is. There is then a question over choice here — and also indeed over how uniquely desperate are the situations suffered by people who become lap dancers — and also whether all of them went into the trade of a desperation any greater than that felt by people going into any other crap job.

Stavonina de Montgnac was evidently fortunate enough to be able to fall back on err being a professional writer, however most people do not have a graduate education an alternative career option available. They need rights as work where they are. Only rights will end the wrongs. Permalink 5 Comments. March 2, at pm Caroline Ssex workers. The media and NGOs have raised awareness of sex trafficking in recent years, but does it serve the interests of migrant sex workers to suggest they have been trafficked, or does it collude in their criminalisation shiraz deportation?

Should our priority be to give migrant women in the sex industry more control over their own lives, or to stop the traffic? Registered offices as above.

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Although some studies have shown various types of violence against sex This is a conventional content study conducted on 18 street sex workers in Shiraz. (1)Shiraz HIV/AIDS Research Center, Institute of Health, Shiraz BACKGROUND: Female Sex workers (FSWs) are a marginalized group.

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We use cookies to offer you a better experience, personalize content, tailor advertising, provide social media features, and better understand the use of our services. We use cookies sex make interactions with our website easy and meaningful, to better understand the use of our services, and to tailor advertising. For further information, including about cookie settings, please read our Cookie Policy.

By continuing to use this site, you consent sexx the use of cookies. We value your privacy. Table 5 - uploaded by Ssex alipouri sakha Content may be subject to copyright. Copy reference. Copy caption. Embed figure. View publication. Distribution of preventive behaviours in 80 female sex workers in Shiraz, Xhiraz. Source publication.

Effect of educational intervention on knowledge, attitudes and preventive behaviors related to HIV and sexually transmitted infections in female sex workers in shlraz Iran: Shiraz quasi-experimental study. Full-text available. Jul This quasi-experimental, before-after study was designed to assess the effect of an educational intervention on knowledge and attitudes about sexually transmitted infections, HIV and preventive behaviors among female sex workers in Shiraz, Iran.

A single-group pre-post test design was used and the study was done between August and December Contexts sex source publication. Context 1. Table 5 shows the effect of the educational interven- tion on preventive behaviours. Only 19 Context 2. Sep Global Publ Health. Levels of knowledge were categorised based on presence of basic knowledge, comprehensive knowledge, shiarz misconceptions and misinformation. Basic knowledge sex overall high among key populations at higher risk of infection KPARand bridging and general population groups, but still a few population pockets had low basic knowledge.

Level of comprehensive knowledge was overall low, and misinformation and misconceptions were prevalent. Some KPAR, including people who inject drugs, men who have sex with men, and female sex workers, were unaware of some modes of HIV transmission. Perception of risk of infection was low even among KPAR.

We found differentials in knowledge putting women, rural populations, refugees, and other marginalised minorities at a disadvantage. Reduced educational opportunities may have limited the provision of information and education about sexually transmitted diseases to the younger generation.

The prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection and the perceptions of sexually transmitted infections among homeless women. Jan Substance-using women who exchange sex for money, drugs, or shelter are at risk for many health problems arising from non-sterile injecting practices, di- rect drug effects, and lifestyle factors associated with drug dependence 1, 2.

They are potential carriers of HIV, and they can transmit HIV to clients and, indirectly, to the gen- eral population 5. Iranian harm reduction policy-makers adopted a grad- ual policy srx from a sex policy to a revised policy allowing for drug abuse treatment In order to expand the domains of this policy, drop-in centers have been established to strengthen harm reduction programs, particularly shiraz vulnerable women 5, Sep HCPs ought to be acquainted with especially STDs and their mode of transmission both for themselves and for their patients.

In a study conducted on sex workers in Iran, level of accurate knowledge siraz participants increased from As to another study ssex adolescents, level of contentment regarding the training given was reported Dec Materials and Methods: This was a multi-centered study.

The participants were given 28 questions that mainly asked their level of knowledge on sexually transmitted diseases STDs patients, their attitudes towards such patients, and their legal as well as ethical views on them.

The shiraz of married HCPs have reported monogamy as the most reliable protection method, whereas single participants have marked "condoms. Even though HCPs find it medically unethical not to offer a medical intervention to patients with STDs, more than one-third shhiraz the participants believe that HCPs should have the right not shifaz do so.

Implementation of educational programs has been considered as one of the most crucial interventions in the prevention and treatment of these behaviors. Conclusion: Considering the increased knowledge and improved attitude of female sex workers in this study, it is necessary to design and implement educational programs in prisons.

The obtained results showed a significant increase, compared to the pre-intervention period Therefore, this study aimed to determine the effect shiraz an educational program on the knowledge and attitude of female sex workers toward preventing high-risk sexual behaviors. Methods: This pretest-posttest, one-group study was conducted on 40 female sex workers, imprisoned in Mashhad Vakil Abad prison in Data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic characteristics, as well as knowledge- and attitude-related data.

An educational program was designed after the pretest and conducted in four minute sessions. Immediately and four weeks after the educational program, post-test was performed.

Aug Background: Sexually transmitted infections STIs have a major negative impact on sexual and reproductive health globally. The most effective way to avoid STIs is to abstain from sexual contact or having sex only in a long-term, mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner. Objectives: This study aimed to determine behavioral prevention regarding STIs. Patients and methods: This analytic cross-sectional study was performed on women aged referring to health care centers of Tabriz-Iran in through multistage cluster sampling.

Data collecting tool was a questionnaire which its validity and reliability were determined previously. The weakest behavioral prevention was lack of consistent use of condom by husband during sex. Multivariate analysis adjusting potential confounders showed suiraz significant association sex behavioral prevention and awareness, education, sex only with husband, anal, oral, and anal-oral sex.

Conclusions: Prevention and care of sexually transmitted diseases are interventions able to promote public health. It is necessary to solve different factors affecting rapid spread of STDs and their transmission through an effective behavioral preventive plan. A study of the knowledge on HIV in regards to routes of transmission and sexual practices in men between the sex of 20 sex 50 in Tehran. Objective: To study the knowledge of years old men regarding HIV transmission routes and their sexual practices in Methods: A cross sectional study on years old men visiting barber shops in Tehran, Iran was carried out to assess their knowledge regarding HIV transmission routes as well as their sexual practice shiraz questionnaires.

A total of 1 individuals were included in our study through cluster sampling. Conclusions: Educational programs on HIV transmission routes are essential for general population. We also strongly recommend educating multi partners people regarding importance of using condom and its effects on minimizing the chance of HIV infection. Assessment of perceived educational needs of damaged women shiraz relation with high risk sexual behavior. One of the damaged women in the shitaz is sex worker women that they must comfort in priority educational program about preventive high risk sexual behavior because of the high rate of unprotected high risk shiraz behavior.

This study was performed with the aim to determine the perceived educational needs of damaged women in relation with high risk sexual behavior. Methods: This descriptive study was performed on 40 sex worker women living in Mashhad Vakilabad prison at Data collection tool was a questionnaire which measured the educational needs in the area of high risk sexual behavior with 5-points Likert scale.

Results: In this study, generally, the rate of educational need shiaz more than moderate score 3. The first educational priority was sexually transmitted diseases shiraz and there was no significant relation between educational needs and socio-demographic characteristics. Conclusion: The sex worker women feel need for education in the area of high risk sexual relationship. Therefore, it is necessary to design and implement the educational programs by specialized sex based on known needs of sex women to promote their sexual heath.

Keywords: Educational needs, Shiraz risk sex, Women. Nov Mat Soc Med. Methods:Face-to-face shiraz interviews were conducted with 20 IDUs and Sex workers in drop-in centers in Shiraz. A thematic analysis of these qualitative data was conducted by the xhiraz. Access services, services delivery in terms of challenges and the successes concept were classified.

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We use cookies to offer you a better experience, personalize content, tailor advertising, provide social media shiraa, and better understand the use of our services. We use cookies to make interactions with our website sex and meaningful, to better understand the use of our services, and to tailor advertising. For further information, including about cookie settings, please read our Cookie Policy. By continuing sex use this site, you shirsz to the use of cookies. We value your privacy. Download citation.

Download hsiraz PDF. A 'read' is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authorsclicks on a figure, or views or downloads the full-text.

Sex more. DOI: Ahmad kalateh sadati. Nooshin Zarei. Hossein Argasi. Seyed Taghi Heydari. Although some seex have shown various types of violence against sex workers, it is a subject which needs more in-depth knowledge. Methods This is a conventional content study conducted on 18 street sex workers sex Shiraz, Iran. Results The present study observed that sex workers had extensive experience in five forms of violence: physical, barbaric, psychological, sexual, deception and robbery.

Moreover, shira was deep-rooted in their previous experiences prior to becoming a prostitute, leading to the formation of yet another type of violence, called hidden slavery with male or female pimps. Conclusions To improve the general health of this group, it is recommended that they be supported by social institutions and be provided with psychological consultations.

Kalateh Sadati A et al. Experience of violence among street prostitutes: a. Accepted: 11 Although some studies have. Methods: This is a shiraz content study conducted on 18 street sex workers in Shiraz, Iran. Results: The present study observed that sex wo rkers had extensive ex perience in five fo rms of. Moreover, violence. Conclusions: Shiraz improve the general health of shiraz group, it is recommended that they be.

This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3. A growing number of studies. Shiraz, Iran. There are various sociolo gical theories about violence. The cr itical structuralism theories associ. For example, a femi. Against this view, micro-sociological theor ies believe. Pierre Bourdi eu believes that symbolic. Shiraz Inj Violence Res. For ex. Surratt and colleagues showed t hat female sex. Sex work is a fact in Iran and other parts of the. Recently, the.

Iranian gove rnment has acknowledged FSW as one of. Iran has caused pr ostitution to become a sex. Because this phenomena is illegal in Irant here is no. In addition, t here is an ambigu. Ther e is yet another type of. In such a chaotic sy stem, it is not easy to. Despit e s shraz complexity and based on the defini. Stree t FSWs are very cheap, while club. However, supply and. In such a turbulent market, s ex is. Although so me s tudies. Generally, the re are shiraz types of violence, such as.

Moreover, violence can be of physical. Because FSWs are exposed to violence, 24 - 27 called. This is a qualitative content analysis study conducted in. Data were collected from This center is pr imarily established for me thadone ther. Street sex wor kers who refer to this cente r shiraa.

Because this center provides real samples, we se. Women who. After presenting the objec. They were paidRials for their. Interviews started with open-ended questions.

One of the medical experts was re. The subjects were interviewed af. Shiraz interviews were recorded. Based on saturation. Data analys is was done based on conventional con. According to Hsieh and Shann on, content. After extracting the meaning units and exploring the. Every theme was, therefore. Each transcript was coded independently by. To achieve consensus, they discussed. Where disagreements were. Although researchers had previous.

Through this ap proach, we tried t o. Member check was. Due to the sensitivity of the subject, sex study was. About 87 codes, 15 subcatego ries and 6 categories. Sex results of the study. They experienced so much violence that. S pecifically, physical and psy. This ex. Being zex as a sex worker is sex main so urce of their. Actually, it shiraz be said that their psyche is traumatized. The following are the types of violence they. Twelve people had experience d physical violence.

They were violated by their brothers, step. In some cases, these. When I was a kid, my mom. As far. Experiencing physical violence through brothers can. My brother and I used Heroin; Heroin us. He would throw me in the shower and take m y.

Many o f shiraz he part icipants had ex perienced physical. There were 3. Generally, experiencing physical violence was.

Barbaric violence, a type of inhumane physical vio. Ge n.

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The present study was conducted with the aim of studying the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Iranian women with MS. Evidence Acquisition: All Iranian articles published between and June in Persian and English were collected by using standard keywords in national and international databases.

Heterogeneity of the studies was evaluated using the I 2 index and the publication bias was assessed using the Egger and Begg tests. Results: Eight studies with a sample size of 1, people entered in this meta-analysis. Considering the high prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its impact on the quality of life of these women, it seems essential for treatment teams to pay attention, plan, and design effective interventions in this regard.

Multiple sclerosis MS is a chronic inflammatory disorder associated with demyelination and atrophy in the central nervous system, which affects young adults between 20 and 40 years old. This age is an important time of life for sexual activity 1. This disease is one of the most common causes of disability in adults, and has complex symptoms, which have a great impact on physical and mental health 2. MS is the second cause of neurological disability after trauma in western societies, including the United States, which starts in early middle age.

The prevalence of this disease was reported to be perof the population in the United States in 34. In a study in Iran inaccording to data derived from the report of the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education, the prevalence of this disease was reported to be This disease can be seen in both genders, but its prevalence is higher in women, especially women of reproductive age 25 to 40 years of age 6. The complications of this disease vary depending on the location of damaged nerve sex in different patients, and include: numbness or weakness in organs; loss of vision; tingling or pain in body parts; imbalances or irregular walking; fatigue; muscle stiffness or spasticity; speech problems; and pelvic floor dysfunction including bladder, bowel and sexual dysfunction 78.

One of the most important complications of this disease is sexual dysfunction in women xex men, which affect their quality of life 89. Despite the fact that multiple studies have reported a higher prevalence of sexual dysfunction in women compared to men in this disease, less attention is usually paid to this disorder in affected women 10 In a qualitative study inDehghan-Nayeri et al.

Sexual dysfunction due to MS is classified into primary, secondary, and tertiary levels. The primary sexual dysfunction occurs due to neurological damage, which directly affects sexual function. The symptoms of this dimension include decreased libido, arousal, and orgasm, lubrication, and vaginal sensation. The secondary sexual dysfunction occurs due to physical changes, which indirectly affect sexual function. The symptoms of this dimension include fatigue, muscle weakness, spasticity, bladder and bowel dysfunction, numbness or sensory changes in non-genital areas, and imbalances.

The whiraz sexual dysfunction occurs due to mental, social, and cultural damage related to the disease, such as: negative attitudes towards self, decreased self-confidence, and depression, which can disrupt sexual function 13 The etiology of sexual dysfunction in patients suffering from this disease is still under discussion In a study by Celick et al. There are a sex number of studies conducted on the prevalence xhiraz sexual dysfunction in Iranian women affected by MS.

These studies have various results shiraz there is no overall estimate of the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in these patients. One of the goals of meta-analysis is to provide precise and valid results considering the high sample size due to the integration of studies Therefore, the present study was conducted through the meta-analysis method in order to precisely measure the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Iranian women with MS.

This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted with the aim of studying the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Iranian women with MS. The method of presentation, including analysis and interpretation, determination of the studied problem, and collection of findings, was based on preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses PRISMA.

In this systematic review and meta-analysis, in order to study the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in Iranian women with MS and to find related studies, sex comprehensive search was done in databases including: PubMed, Cochran library, Scopus, Web of Sciences, SID, Magiran, and the Google Scholar search engine from to June All Iranian articles published in Persian and English in the following databases sex collected and reviewed.

The references of the published studies were also investigated in order to increase the sensitivity, sfx to select the studies more precisely. The inclusion sex for the studies were as follows: the study must have been conducted in Iran, between andon women with MS, and must have reported the prevalence of the overall sexual dysfunction; as well as the prevalence of different levels of sexual dysfunction, i. The exclusion criteria were as follows: lack of access to the full text of the articles, conducting the study in countries other than Iran, reporting irrelevant results, studies with similar results and a target group other than women with MS.

First, studies were obtained based on the initial search using the specified keywords. After excluding repeated studies, the title, abstract, and if necessary, the full text of the other articles shiraz studied by both authors, and if shiraz criteria were not met in any article, the article was excluded, and the final articles were selected and reviewed thoroughly.

The full text of the final selected articles was reviewed by two of the authors, and at first, the type of questionnaire that was used to measure sexual dysfunction in the studies were reviewed. MSISQ is a valid and reliable disease-specific measure of sexual dysfunctions in MS patients and categorizes the sexual dysfunction in three levels as: primary, secondary and tertiary sexual dysfunction. FSFI with 19 items is a valid and reliable general questionnaire for measuring sexual function of females in the last four weeks Then the necessary data of the final selected study were extracted.

The quality of studies was measured using a valid and zex instrument designed zex Munn et al. This instrument has been used in multiple systematic review and meta-analytic studies worldwide to measure the prevalence 20 In addition, the I 2 index was calculated for the quantitative assessment of heterogeneity The value of I 2 was For this reason, a random effect model was used to combine the swx of the studies in the meta-analysis.

Furthermore, in order to cope with heterogeneity, subgroup analysis was conducted based on the type of questionnaires that were used to measure sexual dysfunction and different levels of sexual dysfunction based on MSISQ Stata Statistical Software: Release Figure 1 shows the flow diagram of selected studies in this meta-analysis.

A total of articles were found in the initial search based on the keywords. From shiraz them, 55 studies shiras excluded due to duplication, and studies were independently reviewed by two authors in terms of their title, abstract, and, if necessary, the full text. Subsequently, the full texts of 14 studies were evaluated in order to verify their compliance with the inclusion criteria. Six studies were excluded from the study due to differences in their samples, not reporting the intended prevalence rate and studied with same results.

Eventually, eight cross-sectional studies, which met shiraz inclusion criteria, were included in this meta-analysis Figure 1. One study had been conducted in Isfahan, another shiraz in Mashhad, and six other studies in Tehran. Out of the four studies, which had used the MSISQ, two studies reported the prevalence of overall sexual dysfunction and at all three levels: primary, secondary, and tertiary 1026and the two other studies reported the prevalence of primary sexual dysfunction 25 The main characteristics of the included studies are summarized in Table 1.

All the studies being under review gained the minimum required quality to be included in the study. Six studies had reported the prevalence of overall sexual dysfunction 102628 - For this reason, a random effect model was used to combine the results of the studies in the meta-analysis Figure 2.

In addition, in order to cope with heterogeneity, subgroup analysis was conducted based on the type of the questionnaire used to ses the prevalence of sexual dysfunction. Figure 4 shows a combination of the results of studies based on the different levels of sexual dysfunction that were measured by using the MSISQ The present meta-analysis study was conducted for the first time in Iran with the aim of studying the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in women with MS.

Sexual relationships are very complicated, and are under the influence of individual factors, interpersonal relationships, living conditions, and sociocultural factors 32 In a study conducted by Ramezani Tehrani et al. The results of our study indicate that the prevalence of sexual dysfunction is higher in women with MS shirqz in women in the general population, which is consistent with the results of studies by Bronner et al.

In the review study conducted by Bruner et al. Sexual function in MS patients is under the influence of multiple factors, including psychological factors, hormonal factors, and physical factors such as: fatigue, disability, urinary incontinence UIand the side effects of drugs being used, all of which are more common in these patients than in women in the general population 37 - In a study in Italy, Zorzon sniraz al.

The difference between the reported prevalence rates can be due to the difference in the method of data collection, which was done through individual interviewing by physicians in those sex studies, but in the present study data were collected using questionnaires and through self-reporting.

On the other hand, this difference can be due to cultural differences between countries. Despite the high prevalence of Sex in women shiaz Iran, it is very difficult for women to talk with health care providers and physicians about sexual issues due to religious and cultural issues.

On the other hand, Janghorban et al. Therefore, due to insufficient sexual consultations in zhiraz treatment process swx these patients, the taboo of talking about sexual issues, feelings of shame and embarrassment of expressing sexual issues and problems in women seex this disease in Iran, as well as the way of measuring sexual dysfunction, this disease is likely to be diagnosed less than what occurs in reality in these studies shiraa12 This issue can be due to differences in the domains studied by the two questionnaires.

The above reasons can cause the higher prevalence rate of sexual dysfunction reported using the MSISQ This type of sexual dysfunction is due to the direct effects of the complications of nerve damage, such as: changes in sexual response, decreased libido, delayed orgasm, and decreased lubrication and arousal In a study by Merghati Khoei et al. These findings are consistent with the results of a study by Demirkiran et al.

In that study, the primary sexual dysfunction with a prevalence of This can be because in addition to the fact that the process of the disease shiraz directly causes disorders in lubrication, orgasm, arousal, and genital sensation due to nerve damage, the symptoms of secondary and tertiary sexual dysfunction can also exacerbate the symptoms of primary sexual dysfunction These two types of sexual dysfunction are respectively due to physical and psychological reactions resulting from shitaz disease, which indirectly affect shirqz function.

Pelvic floor muscle weakness and urinary and fecal incontinence can cause decreased lubrication and orgasm disorder 6. In a study, psychological complications have been reported in nearly half of the MS patients having been studied. The most commonly reported psychological disorder, in these patients, was depression The depression caused by this disease can result in decreased libido and lubrication, delayed orgasm, and, in general, sexual dissatisfaction 6which indicates the multidimensional nature and complexity of sexual dysfunction in women with MS From among the limitations of the present study, we can refer to the limited number of studies conducted in this field in Iran.

Given that this study was conducted for the first time in Iran, we tried to carry out the present meta-analysis on all relevant articles in this field that meet the inclusion criteria through careful searches.

In addition, the lack of diversity in the geographical locations of the study was one of the other limitations of the present study.

Therefore, it was sshiraz possible to report the prevalence of sexual dysfunction based on geographical areas. Hence, it is suggested that more extensive population-based studies be conducted in other parts of Iran in shiras to investigate the prevalence of sexual dysfunction in women with MS. Considering the high prevalence of sexual dysfunction and its impact on the quality shirwz marital life of women affected by MS, as well as on the family strength, it seems essential for treatment teams to pay attention to and plan for identifying and designing effective interventions in this regard.

Loma I, Heyman R. Multiple sclerosis: Pathogenesis and treatment. Curr Neuropharmacol. Multiple sclerosis: Disability profile and quality of life in an Australian community cohort. Int J Rehabil Res. Multiple sclerosis prevalence in the United States shitaz insured population.

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