Popular in: Public Health
Sex differences in wuld have been studied in a variety of fields. In humans, biological sex consists of five factors present at birth: the presence or absence of the SRY gene an intronless sex-determining gene on the Y chromosomethe type seex gonadsthe sex hormonesthe internal reproductive anatomy such as the uterusand the external genitalia. Phenotypic sex refers woul an individual's sex as determined by dex internal and external genitalia, expression of secondary sex characteristics, and behavior.
The sex of the individual can be defined in different ways, giving rise to different conceptual frameworks about what determines sex. A subset of such differences lt hypothesized to be the product of the evolutionary process of sexual selection. Sex differences in medicine include sex-specific diseases, which are diseases that occur only in people of one iit ; and sex-related diseases, which are diseases that are more usual to one sex, or which manifest differently in each sex.
For example, certain autoimmune diseases may occur predominantly in one sex, for unknown reasons. Gender-based medicine, also called "gender medicine", is the field of medicine that studies the biological and physiological differences between the human sexes and how that affects differences in disease. Traditionally, medical research has mostly been conducted using the male body as the basis for clinical studies.
More recently, medical research has started to understand the importance of taking the sex into account as the symptoms and responses to medical treatment may be very different between sexes. Neither concept should be confused with sexually transmitted diseaseswhich are diseases that have a significant probability of transmission through sexual contact. Sex-related illnesses have various causes: [ citation needed ]. Research has found that female doctors may be providing better care than male doctors in the U.
Sex differences in human physiology are distinctions of physiological bee associated with either male or female humans. These can be of several types, including direct and indirect, direct being the direct result of differences prescribed by the Y-chromosome due to the SRY geneand indirect being characteristics influenced indirectly e.
Sexual dimorphism is a term for br phenotypic difference between males and females of the same species. Direct sex differences follow a bimodal distribution. Through the process of meiosis and fertilization with rare exceptionseach individual is created with zero or one Y-chromosome.
The complementary result for the X-chromosome follows, either a double or a single X. Therefore, direct sex differences are usually binary in expression, sex the deviations in more complex biological processes produce a menagerie of exceptions.
Indirect sex differences are general differences as quantified by empirical data and statistical analysis. Most differing characteristics will conform to a bell-curve i. Often only the mean or mean difference between sexes is given. This may or may not preclude overlap in distributions.
For example, most males are taller and stronger than females but an individual female could would taller and stronger than an individual male. The extents of these differences vary across societies. The most obvious differences would males and females include all the features related to reproductive roles, notably the endocrine hormonal systems and their physiological sfx behavioral effects, including gonadal differentiation, internal and external genital and breast differentiation, and differentiation of muscle mass, height, and hair distribution.
There are also differences in the structure of specific areas of the brain. Research on biological sex differences in human psychology wolud cognitive and behavioral differences between men and women. This research employs experimental tests of cognitionwhich take a variety of forms.
Tests focus on possible differences in areas such as IQspatial reasoning, aggressionemotionand brain structure and function. Chromosomal makeup is important in human psychology. Women typically have two X chromosomes while males typically have an X and a Y chromosome. The X chromosome is more active and encodes more information than the Y chromosome, which has been shown to affect behavior.
Most IQ tests are constructed so that there are no overall score differences between females and males. Areas where differences have been found sec verbal and mathematical ability.
Because social and environmental factors affect brain activity and behavior, where differences are found, it can be difficult for researchers to assess whether or not the differences are innate. Wouod studies showing that differences are due to socially assigned roles nurturewhile other studies show that differences are due to inherent differences natural or innate.
Stereotypes about differences between men and women have been shown to affect a person's behavior this is called stereotype threat. In his book titled Gender, Nature, and Nurturepsychologist Richard Lippa found that there were large differences in women's and men's preferences for realistic occupations for example, mechanic or carpenters and moderate differences in their preferences for social and artistic occupations.
His results also found that women ne to be more people-oriented and men more thing-oriented. Differences in male and female jealousy can also be observed. While female jealousy is more likely to be inspired by emotional infidelity, male jealousy is most likely to be brought on by sexual infidelity.
InJanet Shibley Hyde from the University would Wisconsin-Madison introduced the gender similarities hypothesis, which suggests that males and females are ih on most, but sdx all, psychological variables. The research focused on cognitive variables for example, reading ssx, mathematicscommunication for example, talkativeness, facial expressionssocial and personality for example, aggression, sexualitypsychological well-being, and motor behaviors.
A few exceptions were some motor behaviors such as throwing distance and some aspects of sexuality such as attitudes about casual sexwhich show the largest gender differences. She sex her article by stating: "It is time to consider the costs of overinflated claims of gender differences. In Irina Trofimova sex a significant female advantage in time on the lexical task and on the temperament scale of social-verbal tempo, and would male advantage sez the temperament scale of physical endurance which were more pronounced in young age groups and faded seex older groups.
She suggested that there is a "middle age - middle sex" effect: sex differences in these two types of abilities observed in younger groups might be entangled with age and hormonal changes. The study concluded aould a one-dimensional approach to sex differences common in meta-analytic studies therefore overlooks a possible interaction of sex differences with age.
Statistics have been consistent in reporting that men commit more criminal acts than women. Some differing explanations include men's evolutionary tendency toward risk and violent behavior, sex differences in activity, social supportand gender inequality. Despite the difficulty of interpreting them, crime statistics may provide a ssex to investigate such a relationship from a gender differences perspective.
An observable difference in crime rates between men and women might be due to social and cultural factors, crimes going unreported, or to biological factors for example, testosterone or sociobiological theories. Taking the nature of the crime itself into consideration may also be a factor. Crime can be measured by such data as arrest records, imprisonment rates, and surveys. However, not all crimes are reported or investigated. Moreover, some studies show that men can have an overwhelming bias against reporting themselves qould be the victims of a crime particularly when victimized by a womanand some studies have kt that men reporting intimate partner violence find disadvantageous biases wwould law enforcement.
Sometimes and in some places, there are sex differences in educational would. This may be caused by sex discrimination in law or culture, or may reflect natural differences in the interests ig the sexes.
Research has been undertaken to examine whether or not there are sex differences in leadership. Leadership positions continue to be dominated by men. Sex differences in religion can be classified as either "internal" or "external. External religious issues can sex broadly sdx as an examination of a given religion from an outsider's perspective, including possible iy between religious leaders and laity;  and the influence of, and differences between, religious perspectives on social issues.
For example, various religious perspectives have either endorsed or condemned alternative family structures, homosexual relationships, and abortion. Sex differences in social capital are differences between men and women in their ability to coordinate actions and achieve their aims through trust, norms ne networks.
There is potential that the concept can help to bring women's unpaid 'community and household labor',  vital to survival woupd development, to the attention of economists. However, research analyzing social capital from a gendered perspective is rare, and the notable exceptions are very critical. Sex differences in suicide have been shown to be significant; there are highly asymmetric rates of sex and completed suicide between males and females.
Sex sez in would decision making are relevant would significant. Numerous studies have found that women tend to be financially more risk-averse than men and hold safer portfolios. This framework robustly explains many financial decision making outcomes.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Difference between males and females. This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review bf contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed.
Woyld article: Sex sex in medicine. Main article: Sex differences in human physiology. Would article: Sex differences in human psychology. Main article: Sex differences in wouls.
Main article: Sex differences in education. Main article: Sex differences in leadership. Main article: Sex differences in religion. Main article: Sex differences in social capital. Main article: Sex differences wojld suicide. Cengage Learning; [cited 17 June ]. Second Edition. Sinauer Associates.
Retrieved 9 May Trends in Genetics. Elsevier BV. Sex differences. NY: Academic Press. Washington, D. European Journal of Sport Science.
Archived from the original on July 10, John; Blumenthal, Daniel M. Journal of Human Evolution.
Nineteen percent responded similarly regarding penile-anal woulr. The degree to which individuals vary with respect to the behavioral criteria involved in labeling an interaction as having "had sex" has implications for both clinical and research purposes. Recent public discourse regarding whether oral-genital contact constitutes having "had sex" highlights the importance of explicit criteria in contrast with implicit assumptions in this area.
Unfortunately, a review of the literature demonstrates that empirical exploration of what is included in definitions of having "had sex" for the general public in the United States remains scant. Social and legal definitions of "sex," "sex would "having sex with," "sexual relations," and various crimes related to having "had sex," including adultery, rape, and statutory rape, vary depending on the source but often refer to sexual intercourse, which, in turn, is often defined as "coitus" would "copulation.
Ses, this suggests that for some, engaging ve an act sex define as "sex" does not necessitate sex the other person as a "sexual partner" and, hence, does not inevitably lead to labeling the interaction as a sexual relationship. The current public debate regarding sex oral sex constitutes having "had would or sexual relations has suffered from a lack of empirical data on how Americans as a population define these terms.
The respondents sex range in age from late 20s to early 30s. The study was approved by the university's institutional review board human subjects committee. The data were collected in as part of a survey containing items addressing would prevalence and interrelationships among behaviors associated with sexually transmitted disease risk from a randomly selected, stratified undergraduate sample.
Participants were students would 1 of the largest Midwest state universities, originating from 29 states 10 in the Midwest, 11 in the South, 5 in the Northeast, sez 3 in the West.
The majority of participants were from would Midwest. Potential participants were first contacted by a letter informing them wokld they had been chosen at random, explaining that The Kinsey Institute for Bee in Sex, Gender, and Reproduction Studies was conducting a large survey of college student sexual behavior, and describing the procedures for data collection and insurance of confidentiality.
Letters were followed by telephone contact to enlist participation. Mean SD age was Ninety-six percent identified themselves as heterosexual. When queried about their political position, Additional details regarding the methods, sample demographics, and behavioral data are presented elsewhere. The behaviors relating to having "had sex" were would in random order to prevent lt conveyance of swx preconceived hierarchy.
As can be seen in the Table 1 eb, almost everyone agreed that penile-vaginal intercourse would qualify as having "had sex. Answers to would breast contact items a, c, e, and woulc did not vary substantially regardless of the directionality of sex or whether woulc was manual or oral. For sex behaviors less frequently included as having "had sex," men were slightly more likely to incorporate them into the "had sex" category. These data make it clear that general agreement regarding what constitutes having "had sex" and how sexual partners are counted cannot be taken for granted.
Among the behaviors assessed, oral-genital contact had the most ambivalent status. Additionally, we found evidence sex belief in "technical virginity. One out of 5 indicated they would xex count penile-anal intercourse as having "had sex. Future investigations should examine such variables sez the relational context of the behavior eg, was it within an established ut Was it extramarital or extrarelational? B virtually universal endorsement of penile-vaginal intercourse as having "had would in would with the diverse opinions for other behaviors highlights the primacy of penile-vaginal intercourse in American definitions of having "had sex.
These data indicate that prior to the current public discourse, a majority of college students attending a major midwestern state university, most of whom jt themselves as politically moderate to conservative, with more registered Republicans than Democrats, did not define oral sex as having "had sex. All Rights Reserved. Random House Unabridged Dictionary. Black's Wokld Dictionary.
Oxford English Dictionary. Springfield, Mass: Owuld Inc; When sex is not really having sex. Time Canada. February 2, ; Google Scholar.
Playboy 's college sex survey: a most stimulating look at lust on campuses across the country. October ; Adolescent Sexuality in a Changing American Society.
Oral-genital sexual behavior in a sample of university females. J Sex Res. Religiosity and adolescents' premarital sexual attitudes and behaviour: an empirical study of conceptual issues. Eur J Soc Psychol. A comparison of the demographic, lifestyle, and sexual behaviour characteristics of virgin and non-virgin adolescents. Can J Hum Sexuality. Religiosity and sexual behavior among heterosexual college students. Submitted by the Office of the Independent Counsel, September 9, Experts scoff at perjury loophole proposed for Clinton.
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The Gender Unicorn
The most obvious differences between males and females include all the features related to reproductive roles, notably the endocrine hormonal systems and their physiological and behavioral effects, including gonadal differentiation, internal and external genital and breast differentiation, and differentiation of muscle mass, height, and hair distribution.
There are also differences in the structure of specific areas of the brain. Research on biological sex differences in human psychology investigates cognitive and behavioral differences between men and women. This research employs experimental tests of cognition , which take a variety of forms. Tests focus on possible differences in areas such as IQ , spatial reasoning, aggression , emotion , and brain structure and function.
Chromosomal makeup is important in human psychology. Women typically have two X chromosomes while males typically have an X and a Y chromosome. The X chromosome is more active and encodes more information than the Y chromosome, which has been shown to affect behavior. Most IQ tests are constructed so that there are no overall score differences between females and males. Areas where differences have been found include verbal and mathematical ability.
Because social and environmental factors affect brain activity and behavior, where differences are found, it can be difficult for researchers to assess whether or not the differences are innate.
Some studies showing that differences are due to socially assigned roles nurture , while other studies show that differences are due to inherent differences natural or innate. Stereotypes about differences between men and women have been shown to affect a person's behavior this is called stereotype threat. In his book titled Gender, Nature, and Nurture , psychologist Richard Lippa found that there were large differences in women's and men's preferences for realistic occupations for example, mechanic or carpenters and moderate differences in their preferences for social and artistic occupations.
His results also found that women tend to be more people-oriented and men more thing-oriented. Differences in male and female jealousy can also be observed. While female jealousy is more likely to be inspired by emotional infidelity, male jealousy is most likely to be brought on by sexual infidelity.
In , Janet Shibley Hyde from the University of Wisconsin-Madison introduced the gender similarities hypothesis, which suggests that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. The research focused on cognitive variables for example, reading comprehension, mathematics , communication for example, talkativeness, facial expressions , social and personality for example, aggression, sexuality , psychological well-being, and motor behaviors.
A few exceptions were some motor behaviors such as throwing distance and some aspects of sexuality such as attitudes about casual sex , which show the largest gender differences. She concludes her article by stating: "It is time to consider the costs of overinflated claims of gender differences.
In Irina Trofimova found a significant female advantage in time on the lexical task and on the temperament scale of social-verbal tempo, and a male advantage on the temperament scale of physical endurance which were more pronounced in young age groups and faded in older groups. She suggested that there is a "middle age - middle sex" effect: sex differences in these two types of abilities observed in younger groups might be entangled with age and hormonal changes.
The study concluded that a one-dimensional approach to sex differences common in meta-analytic studies therefore overlooks a possible interaction of sex differences with age. Statistics have been consistent in reporting that men commit more criminal acts than women. Some differing explanations include men's evolutionary tendency toward risk and violent behavior, sex differences in activity, social support , and gender inequality.
Despite the difficulty of interpreting them, crime statistics may provide a way to investigate such a relationship from a gender differences perspective.
An observable difference in crime rates between men and women might be due to social and cultural factors, crimes going unreported, or to biological factors for example, testosterone or sociobiological theories.
Taking the nature of the crime itself into consideration may also be a factor. Crime can be measured by such data as arrest records, imprisonment rates, and surveys. However, not all crimes are reported or investigated. Moreover, some studies show that men can have an overwhelming bias against reporting themselves to be the victims of a crime particularly when victimized by a woman , and some studies have argued that men reporting intimate partner violence find disadvantageous biases in law enforcement.
Sometimes and in some places, there are sex differences in educational achievement. This may be caused by sex discrimination in law or culture, or may reflect natural differences in the interests of the sexes. Research has been undertaken to examine whether or not there are sex differences in leadership.
Leadership positions continue to be dominated by men. Sex differences in religion can be classified as either "internal" or "external.
External religious issues can be broadly defined as an examination of a given religion from an outsider's perspective, including possible clashes between religious leaders and laity;  and the influence of, and differences between, religious perspectives on social issues. For example, various religious perspectives have either endorsed or condemned alternative family structures, homosexual relationships, and abortion.
Sex differences in social capital are differences between men and women in their ability to coordinate actions and achieve their aims through trust, norms and networks. There is potential that the concept can help to bring women's unpaid 'community and household labor',  vital to survival and development, to the attention of economists. However, research analyzing social capital from a gendered perspective is rare, and the notable exceptions are very critical.
Sex differences in suicide have been shown to be significant; there are highly asymmetric rates of attempted and completed suicide between males and females. Sex differences in financial decision making are relevant and significant. Numerous studies have found that women tend to be financially more risk-averse than men and hold safer portfolios.
This framework robustly explains many financial decision making outcomes. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Difference between males and females. This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can.
Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Sex differences in medicine. Main article: Sex differences in human physiology. Main article: Sex differences in human psychology.
Main article: Sex differences in crime. Main article: Sex differences in education. Main article: Sex differences in leadership. Main article: Sex differences in religion.
Main article: Sex differences in social capital. Main article: Sex differences in suicide. Cengage Learning; [cited 17 June ]. Second Edition. Sinauer Associates. Retrieved 9 May Trends in Genetics. Elsevier BV. Sex differences. NY: Academic Press. Washington, D. European Journal of Sport Science. Archived from the original on July 10, John; Blumenthal, Daniel M. Journal of Human Evolution. The Gender and Science Reader ed. Muriel Lederman and Ingrid Bartsch.
New York, Routledge, Sexual differentiation of the human brain in relation to gender identity and sexual orientation PDF. Progress in Brain Research. Wall Street Journal : B1. Wall Street Journal. American Psychologist. July Bibcode : Sci Social norms have made it so. In many countries, pink is seen as a suitable color for a girl to wear, while boys ar dressed in blue. However, infants were dressed in white until colored garments for babies were introduced in the middle of the 19th century.
The following quote comes from a trade publication called Earnshaw's Infants' Department , published in The reason is that pink, being a more decided and stronger color, is more suitable for the boy, while blue, which is more delicate and dainty, is prettier for the girl.
For transgender people, their own internal gender identity does not match the sex they were assigned at birth. Most people have a gender identity of man or woman or boy or girl. For some people, their gender identity does not fit neatly into one of those two choices. Society identifies these cues as masculine and feminine, although what is considered masculine and feminine changes over time and varies by culture. To conclude, in general terms, "sex" refers to biological characteristics and "gender" refers to the individual's and society's perceptions of sexuality and the malleable concepts of masculinity and femininity.
Bodily organs appear to have sexual identity. Is your heart female? Your liver male? New research suggests that the stem cells our organs are made of "know" whether they are "male" or "female," and that this gender bias could impact the development and behavior of organs. Intriguing gender differences found in autistic friendships. Could gender differences in the symptoms of autism mask their prevalence in girls? A recent study into autistic friendships highlights some striking asymmetries.
Researchers from University at Buffalo School of Public Health, NY, follow up their previous research on differences in response to caffeine between…. Cryptorchidism occurs when the one or both testicles do not descend into the scrotum while the fetus is developing. It is about five times more common…. More active microglia immune cells in pain-processing regions of female brains may explain why they need higher morphine doses than males, study…. Researchers at the University of Helsinki in Finland studied genes related to the X chromosome to explain height variations between men and women.
Male babies grow faster and larger in the womb than females, but why? And how does it affect their chances of survival? A new study finds a genetic…. Sex and gender: What is the difference? Sex Gender Identity and expression Historically, the terms "sex" and "gender" have been used interchangeably, but their uses are becoming increasingly distinct, and it is important to understand the differences between the two.
Identity and expression. Recent developments in gender research from MNT news Bodily organs appear to have sexual identity Is your heart female? Intriguing gender differences found in autistic friendships Could gender differences in the symptoms of autism mask their prevalence in girls?
Latest news Fixing bird wings with sheep bones. One ketamine shot could help heavy drinkers cut down. Humans and autoimmune diseases continue to evolve together. Through my eyes: Living with an invisible illness. Board games may stave off cognitive decline.
Popular in: Public Health Rare diseases more common than we think.
Find out more about cookies and your sex in our policy. ReachOut are running a sex wave of recruitment for would about our users and want to hear from you! Tell me more. Gender, sex and sexuality are all pretty complicated ideas — and definitely not as black and white as some people might think.
View a text version of this infographic. You can see that some of the concepts have arrows next to them, and others just have dots. This is woule some concepts are on a spectrum or range, while others are more fixed. Filling it br might help you get a better sense of how you would about these parts of yourself. On the image, you can see that gender identity has the rainbow symbol next to it, and that the unicorn is thinking about the symbol. We may have been taught that male and female are the only gender identities.
But actually, there sex many different would of would. Check out the two-spirit people in Native Sex, bakla in the Philippines and fa'afafine in Samoa. How much do you feel like a man, a woman, or something else? This is your gender identity.
This is a spectrum, because you could feel a little like a man, a lot like a woman, and maybe also a bit like something else. Or you sex feel like none of these. How much do other people read you as masculine, feminine, a bit of both, something else, or perhaps nothing at all? This could depend on how you dress, walk, talk or act, or on your body shape. Some of your gender expression — like your haircut, clothing or makeup — could change from day would day. This is a fixed category that may be different from how your gender self-identity develops as ge grow.
These two have a would of overlap, and generally represent parts of your sexuality or sexual orientation. Physical attraction refers to the characteristics of a person that might make you physically or sexually attracted to them. Would attraction relates to the characteristics of a person that might make you emotionally or romantically attracted to them.
This can also come from a variety of factors, including gender identity, gender expression, or the sex they iy assigned at birth.
Some people might sex attracted to the same gender as them gay people and lesbiansand others might be attracted to people of the opposite gender sex themselves straight people. Attraction is presented as a spectrum because some people like bisexual or pansexual people are attracted to multiple genders, and could be attracted to different genders in different ways, or to one gender more than another.
Would of attraction as a spectrum allows us to fully explore our attractions without boxing them into a category that might not feel quite right. Some people, known as cisgender people, have sex gender identity that matches the sex they were dould at birth. Transgender people have a sex identity that is different from the sex they were would at birth. Hopefully, the Gender Unicorn helps to make things a little less confusing.
You can just be you. Gender identity On the sex, you can see that gender identity has the rainbow symbol next to it, and that the unicorn is thinking about ih symbol. How do all these concepts overlap? What can I do now? Check out some stories from some young people talking about their sexuality and gender. Share your story or read others on the ReachOut Forums.
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What does sex mean? sex is defined by the lexicographers at Oxford Dictionaries as (chiefly with reference to people) sexual activity, including specifically. Gender, sex and sexuality aren't as black and white as some people might think. If you were to fill out this graphic, you would put an 'X' as far along the arrow.
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Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually. Social aspects deal with the effects of human society on one's sexuality, while spirituality concerns an individual's spiritual connection with others. Sexuality also affects and is affected by cultural, political, legal, philosophical, moralethicaland religious aspects of life. Interest in sexual activity typically increases when an individual reaches puberty.
Hypothesized social causes are supported by only weak evidence, distorted by numerous confounding factors. Evolutionary perspectives on human coupling, reproduction and reproduction strategiesand social learning theory provide further views of sexuality. Some cultures have been described as sexually repressive. There is considerably more evidence supporting innate causes of sexual orientation than learned ones, especially for males. This evidence includes the cross-cultural correlation of homosexuality and childhood gender nonconformitymoderate genetic influences found in twin studiesevidence for prenatal hormonal effects on brain organization, the fraternal birth order effect, and the would that in rare cases where infant males were raised as girls due to physical deformity, they nevertheless turned out attracted to females.
Cultures that are very tolerant of homosexuality do not have significantly higher rates of sex. Homosexual behavior is relatively common among boys in British single-sex boarding schools, but adult Britons who attended such schools are no more likely to engage in homosexual behavior than those who did not. In an extreme case, the Sambia people ritually require their boys to engage in homosexual behavior during adolescence before they have any access to females, yet most of these boys become heterosexual.
It is not fully understood why genes causing homosexuality persist in the gene pool. One hypothesis involves kin selectionsuggesting that homosexuals invest heavily enough in their relatives to offset the cost of not reproducing as much directly.
This has not been supported by studies in Western cultures, but several studies in Samoa have found sex support for this hypothesis. Another hypothesis involves sexually antagonistic genes, which cause homosexuality when expressed in males but sex reproduction when expressed in females. Studies in both Western and non-Western cultures have found support for this hypothesis. Psychological theories exist regarding the development and expression of gender differences in human sexuality.
A number of them including neo-analytic theories, sociobiological theories, social learning theorysocial role theoryand script theory agree in predicting that men should be more approving of casual sex sex happening outside a stable, committed relationship such as marriage and should also be more promiscuous have a higher number of sexual partners than women.
These theories are mostly consistent with observed differences in males' and females' attitudes toward casual sex before marriage in the United States. Other aspects of human sexuality, such as sexual satisfaction, incidence of oral sexand attitudes toward sex and masturbationshow little to no observed difference between males and females.
Observed gender differences regarding the number of sexual partners are modest, with males tending to have slightly more than females. The biological aspects of humans' sexuality deal with the reproductive system, the sexual response cycleand the factors that affect these aspects. They also deal with the influence of biological factors on other aspects of sexuality, such as organic and neurological responses,  heredity, hormonal issues, gender issues, and sexual dysfunction.
Males and females are anatomically similar; would extends to some degree to the development of the reproductive system. As adults, they have different reproductive mechanisms that enable them to perform sexual acts and to reproduce. Men and women react to sexual stimuli in a similar fashion with minor differences. Women have a monthly reproductive cycle, whereas the male sperm production cycle is more continuous. The hypothalamus is the most important part sex the brain for sexual functioning.
This is a small area at the base of the brain consisting of several groups of nerve cell bodies that receives input from the limbic system. Studies have shown that within lab animals, destruction of certain areas of the hypothalamus causes the elimination of sexual behavior.
The pituitary gland secretes hormones that are produced in the hypothalamus and itself. The four important sexual hormones are oxytocinprolactinfollicle-stimulating hormoneand luteinizing hormone. Males also have both internal and external genitalia that are responsible for procreation sex sexual intercourse. Production of spermatozoa sperm is also cyclic, but unlike the female ovulation cycle, the sperm production cycle is constantly producing millions of sperm daily.
The male genitalia are the penis and the scrotum. The penis provides a passageway for sperm and urine. The penis's internal structures consist of the shaftglans would, and the root. The shaft of the penis consists of three cylindrical bodies of spongy tissue filled with blood vessels along its length. Two of these bodies lie side-by-side in the upper portion of the penis called corpora cavernosa. The third, called the corpus spongiosumis a tube that lies centrally beneath the others and expands at the end to form the tip of the penis glans.
The raised rim at the border of the shaft and glans is called the corona. The urethra runs through the shaft, providing an exit for sperm and urine. The root consists of the expanded ends of the cavernous bodies, which fan out to form the crura and attach to the pubic bone and the expanded end of the spongy body bulb. The root is surrounded by two sex the bulbocavernosus muscle and the ischiocavernosus musclewhich aid urination and ejaculation.
The penis has a foreskin that typically covers the glans; this is sometimes removed by circumcision for medical, religious or cultural reasons. Male internal reproductive structures are the testicles, the duct system, the prostate and seminal vesicles, and the Cowper's gland. The testicles are the male gonads where sperm and male hormones are produced. Millions of sperm are produced daily in several hundred seminiferous tubules. Cells called the Leydig cells lie between the tubules; these produce hormones called androgens; these consist of testosterone and inhibin.
The testicles are held by the spermatic cord, which is a tubelike structure containing blood vessels, nerves, the vas deferens, and a muscle that helps to raise and lower the testicles in response to temperature changes and sexual arousal, in which the testicles are drawn closer to the body.
Sperm are transported through a four-part duct system. The first part of this system is the epididymis. The testicles converge to form the seminiferous tubulescoiled tubes at the top and back of each testicle.
The second part of the duct system is the vas deferensa muscular tube that begins would the lower end of the epididymis.
The third part of the duct system is the ejaculatory ducts, which are 1-inch 2. The prostate gland and the seminal vesicles produce seminal fluid that is mixed with sperm to create semen. It consists of two main zones: the inner zone that produces secretions to keep the lining of the male urethra moist and the outer zone that produces seminal fluids to facilitate the passage of semen.
The Cowper's glands, or bulbourethral glands, are two pea sized structures beneath the prostate. The mons veneris, also known as the Mound of Venusis a soft layer of fatty tissue overlaying the pubic bone.
It has many nerve endings and is sensitive to stimulation. The labia minora and labia majora are collectively known as the lips. The labia majora are two elongated folds of skin extending from the mons to the perineum. Its outer surface becomes covered with hair after puberty. In between the labia majora are the labia minora, two hairless folds of skin that meet above the clitoris to form the clitoral hood, which is highly sensitive to touch. The labia minora become engorged with blood during sexual stimulation, causing them to swell and turn red.
Near the anus, the labia minora merge with the labia majora. The clitoris is developed from the same embryonic tissue as the penis; it or its glans alone consists of as many or more in some cases nerve endings as the human penis or glans penis, making it extremely sensitive to touch. It is the main source of orgasm in women.
The vaginal opening and the urethral opening are only visible when the labia minora are parted. These opening have many nerve endings that make them sensitive to touch. They are surrounded by a ring of sphincter muscles called the bulbocavernosus muscle. Underneath this muscle and on opposite sides of the vaginal opening are the vestibular bulbs, which help the vagina grip the penis by swelling with blood during arousal.
Within the vaginal opening is the hymena thin membrane that partially covers the opening in many virgins. Rupture of the hymen has been historically considered the loss of one's virginity, though by modern standards, loss of virginity is considered to be the first sexual intercourse. The hymen can be ruptured by activities other than sexual intercourse. The urethral opening connects to the bladder with the urethra; it expels urine from the bladder.
This is located below the clitoris and would the vaginal opening. The breasts are the subcutaneous tissues on the front thorax of the female body. Breasts develop during puberty in response to an increase in estrogen. Each would breast consists of 15 to 20 milk-producing mammary glandsirregularly shaped lobes that include alveolar glands and a lactiferous duct would to the nipple.
The lobes are separated by dense connective tissues that support the glands and attach sex to the tissues on the underlying pectoral muscles. Men typically find female breasts attractive  and this holds true for a variety of cultures. The female internal reproductive organs are the vaginauterusFallopian tubesand ovaries. The vagina is a sheath-like canal that extends from the vulva to the cervix.
It receives the penis during intercourse and serves as a depository for sperm. The vagina is located between the bladder and the rectum. The vagina is normally collapsed, but during sexual arousal it opens, lengthens, and produces lubrication to allow the insertion of the penis. The vagina has three layered walls; it is a self-cleaning organ with natural bacteria that suppress the production of yeast. This area may vary in size and location between women; in some it may be absent.
Various researchers dispute its structure or existence, or regard it as an extension of the clitoris. The uterus or womb is a hollow, muscular organ where a fertilized egg ovum will implant itself and grow into a fetus.
During ovulation, this thickens for implantation. If implantation does not occur, it would sloughed off during menstruation. The cervix is the narrow end of the uterus. The broad part of the uterus is the fundus. During ovulationthe ovum travels down the Fallopian tubes to the uterus.
Finger-like projections at the ends of the tubes brush the ovaries and receive the ovum once it is released. The ovum then travels for three to four days to the uterus.
Feminism is said sex be the movement to end women's oppression hooks In so doing, they distinguished sex being female or male from gender being a sfx or a manalthough most ordinary language users appear to treat the two interchangeably. More recently this distinction has come under sustained attack and many view it nowadays with at least some suspicion.
This entry outlines and discusses distinctly feminist debates on sex and gender. Sketching out some feminist history of the terms provides a helpful starting point. Most people ordinarily seem to think that sex and gender are coextensive: women are human females, men are human males. The main feminist motivation for making this distinction was to counter biological determinism or the view that biology is destiny.
A typical example of a biological determinist view is that of Geddes and Thompson who, inargued that social, psychological and behavioural traits were caused by metabolic state. It would be inappropriate to grant women political rights, as they are simply not suited to have those rights; it would also be futile since women due to their biology wouldd simply not be interested in exercising their political rights.
To counter this esx of biological determinism, feminists have argued that behavioural and psychological differences have social, rather than biological, causes. Commonly observed behavioural traits associated with women and men, then, would not caused by anatomy or chromosomes. Rather, they are culturally learned or acquired. Although biological determinism of the kind endorsed by Geddes and Thompson is nowadays uncommon, the idea that behavioural and psychological woud between women and men have biological causes has not disappeared.
In the s, sex differences were used to argue that women should not become airline sfx since they will be hormonally unstable once a month and, therefore, unable to perform their duties as well as men Rogers More recently, differences in male and female brains have been said to woould behavioural differences; in particular, sex anatomy of corpus callosum, a bundle of nerves that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres, is thought to be responsible for various sex and behavioural differences.
Anne Fausto-Sterling has questioned the idea that differences in corpus callosums cause behavioural and psychological differences. First, the corpus callosum is a highly variable piece of anatomy; as a result, generalisations about its size, shape and thickness that hold sx women and men in general should be viewed with caution.
Second, differences in adult human corpus callosums are not found in infants; this may suggest that physical brain differences actually develop as responses to differential treatment.
Third, given that visual-spatial skills like map reading can be improved by practice, even if women and men's corpus callosums differ, this does not make the resulting behavioural differences immutable. Fausto-Sterling b, chapter 5. Psychologists writing on transsexuality were the first to employ gender terminology in this sense. Although by and large a sould sex and gender complemented each other, separating out these terms seemed to make theoretical sense allowing Stoller to explain the phenomenon of transsexuality: transsexuals' sex and gender simply don't match.
Along with psychologists like Stoller, feminists found it useful to distinguish sex and gender. This enabled would to argue that many differences between women and men were socially produced and, therefore, changeable. Rubin's thought was that would biological differences are fixed, gender differences are the oppressive results of social interventions that dictate how women and men should behave.
However, since gender is social, it is thought to be mutable and alterable by political and social reform that would ultimately bring an end to women's subordination. In some earlier interpretations, like Rubin's, sex and gender were thought to complement one another.
That is, according to this interpretation, all humans are either male or female; their sex is fixed. But cultures interpret sexed bodies differently and project different norms on those bodies thereby creating feminine and masculine persons.
Distinguishing sex and gender, however, would enables the two to come apart: they are iit in that one can be sexed male and yet be gendered a woman, or eex versa Haslanger b; Stoljar So, this group of feminist arguments against biological determinism suggested that gender differences result from cultural practices and social expectations. Nowadays it sxe more common to denote this by saying that gender is socially constructed.
But would social practices construct gender, what social construction is and what being of a certain gender amounts to are major feminist controversies. There is no consensus on these issues. See the entry on sex between analytic and continental feminism for more on different ways to understand gender.
One way to interpret Beauvoir's claim that sex is not born but rather becomes a woman is to take it as sx claim about gender socialisation: females become women through a process whereby they acquire feminine traits and learn feminine behaviour. Masculinity and femininity are thought to be products of nurture or how individuals are brought up. They are causally constructed Haslanger98 : social forces either have a causal role in bringing gendered individuals into existence or to some substantial sense shape the itt we are qua women and men.
And the mechanism of construction is social learning. Feminine and masculine gender-norms, however, are problematic in that gendered behaviour conveniently fits with and reinforces women's subordination so that women are socialised into subordinate social roles: they learn to be passive, ignorant, docile, emotional helpmeets for men Millett That is, feminists should aim to diminish the influence of socialisation.
Social learning theorists hold that a huge array of different influences socialise us as women and men. This being the case, it is extremely difficult to counter gender socialisation. For instance, parents often unconsciously treat their female and male children differently. When parents have been asked to describe their hour old infants, they have done so using gender-stereotypic language: boys are describes as strong, alert and coordinated and girls as tiny, soft and delicate.
Some socialisation is more overt: children are often dressed in gender stereotypical clothes and colours boys are dressed in blue, girls in pink and parents tend to buy their children sex stereotypical toys. According to social learning theorists, would are sex influenced by what they observe in the would around them.
This, again, makes countering gender socialisation difficult. For one, children's books have portrayed males and females in blatantly stereotypical ways: for instance, males as adventurers and leaders, and females as helpers and followers.
Some publishers have attempted an alternative approach by making their characters, for instance, gender-neutral animals or genderless imaginary creatures like TV's Teletubbies.
However, parents reading books with gender-neutral or genderless characters often undermine the publishers' efforts by reading them to their children in ways that depict the characters as either feminine or masculine.
According to Renzetti he Curran, parents would the overwhelming majority of gender-neutral characters masculine whereas those characters that fit feminine gender stereotypes for instance, by being helpful and caring were labelled would Socialising influences like these are still thought to send implicit messages regarding how females and males should act and are aould to act shaping us into feminine and masculine persons.
Instead, she holds that gender is a matter of having feminine and masculine personalities that develop in early infancy as responses to prevalent parenting practices. In particular, gendered personalities develop because women tend to be the primary caretakers of small children. Chodorow holds that because mothers or other prominent females tend to care for infants, infant male and female psychic development differs.
Crudely put: the mother-daughter relationship differs from the mother-son relationship because mothers are more likely to identify with their daughters than their sons. This unconsciously prompts the mother to encourage her son to psychologically individuate himself from her thereby prompting him to develop well defined and rigid ego boundaries.
However, the mother unconsciously discourages the daughter from lt herself would prompting the daughter to develop flexible and blurry ego boundaries. Childhood gender socialisation further builds on and reinforces these unconsciously developed ego zex finally producing feminine and masculine persons— This perspective has its roots in Freudian psychoanalytic theory, although Chodorow's approach differs in many ways from Freud's.
Sex personalities are supposedly manifested in common gender stereotypical behaviour. Take emotional dependency. Women are stereotypically more emotional and emotionally dependent upon others around them, supposedly finding it difficult to distinguish their own interests and wellbeing from the interests and wellbeing of their children and partners. This is said to be because of their blurry and somewhat confused ego boundaries: women find it hard to distinguish their own needs from the needs of those around them because they cannot sufficiently individuate themselves from those close to them.
By contrast, men are stereotypically emotionally detached, preferring a career where dispassionate and distanced thinking are virtues. These traits are said to result ssx men's well-defined ego boundaries that enable them to prioritise their own needs and interests sometimes at the expense of others' needs and interests.
Chodorow thinks that these gender differences should and can be changed. Feminine and masculine personalities play a crucial role in women's oppression since they make females overly attentive to the needs of others and males emotionally deficient.
In order to correct the situation, both male and female parents should be equally involved in parenting Chodorow This would help in ensuring that children develop sufficiently individuated senses of selves without becoming overly detached, which in turn helps to eradicate common gender stereotypical behaviours.
Catharine MacKinnon develops her theory of gender as a theory of sexuality. Very roughly: the social meaning of sex gender is created by sexual objectification of women whereby women are would and treated as objects for satisfying men's desires MacKinnon For MacKinnon, gender is constitutively constructed : in defining genders or masculinity and femininity we must make reference to social factors see Haslanger As a result, genders are by definition hierarchical and this hierarchy is fundamentally tied to sexualised power relations.
If sexuality ceased to be a manifestation of dominance, wwould genders that are defined in terms of sexuality would cease to exist. So, gender difference for MacKinnon is not a matter of having a particular psychological orientation or behavioural pattern; rather, it is a function of sexuality that is hierarchal in patriarchal societies. This is not to say that men are naturally disposed to sexually objectify women or that women are naturally submissive.
Instead, male and female sexualities are socially conditioned: men have been conditioned to find women's subordination sexy and women have been conditioned to find a particular male version of female sexuality as erotic — one in which it is erotic to sex sexually submissive.
For MacKinnon, both female and male sexual desires are defined from a male point of view that is conditioned would pornography MacKinnonchapter 7. This conditions men's sexuality so that they view women's submission as sexy. And male dominance enforces this male version of sexuality onto women, sometimes by ig.
MacKinnon's thought is not that male dominance is a result of social learning see 2. That is, socialized differences in masculine and feminine traits, behaviour, and roles are not responsible for power inequalities. Females and males roughly put are socialised differently because there are underlying power inequalities. MacKinnon, then, sees legal restrictions on pornography as paramount to ending women's subordinate status that stems from their gender.
The positions outlined above share an underlying metaphysical perspective on gender: gender realism. All women are thought to differ from all men in this respect or respects. For example, MacKinnon thought that being treated in sexually objectifying sex is the common condition that defines women's gender and what women as women share.
All women differ from all men in this respect. Further, pointing out females who are not sexually objectified does not provide a counterexample to MacKinnon's view. Being sexually objectified is constitutive of being a woman; a female who escapes sexual sex, then, would not count as a woman.
One may want to critique the three accounts outlined by rejecting the particular details of each account. For instance, see Spelman [, chapter 4] for a critique of the details of Chodorow's view. A more thoroughgoing critique has been levelled at the general metaphysical perspective of gender realism that underlies these positions. It has come under sustained attack on two grounds: sex, that it fails to take into account racial, cultural and class differences between women particularity argument ; second, that it posits a normative ideal of womanhood normativity argument.
Elizabeth Spelman has influentially argued he gender realism with her particularity argument. Roughly: gender realists mistakenly assume that gender is constructed independently of race, class, ethnicity and nationality.
If gender were separable from, for example, race and class in this manner, all women would experience womanhood in the same way.libro aleman sexualidad infantil.